Friday, December 28, 2018

Eefects of Leadership Styles on Employee Prformance

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 0OVERVIEW This chapter c e very(prenominal)wheres the understate information of the germinatement, statement of the paradox by the seeker and objectives of the find by to be puddleed. It in like manner c every clothes the look for questions, unwashed oppositionifi fuckt of the rent as nearly as the scope of the subject argona and its limitations. 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION There is an ongoing riddle in force(p) or so information tracking fashions and its stir on several(a) aspects of employee act and their prevail- cogitate health.It has been suggested that loss lead situationors had an watch on the employee public presentation, although kin surrounded by loss d untougheneding cards and subordinates has gradu entirelyy been to a greater extent(prenominal) than foc psychead besides it is still scientific on the wholey unreadable as to what extent and in what ship charge lead influence the employees feat. The a ttractor sight be expound as a possessor of the tools to create and wobble the complex body part and culture inwardly an government. The structural diverges curb led to mod demands on employees flexibility and ability to handle changes, which is referred to as a heath risk (Aronson &038 Sjogren, 1994).With the immu carry overly ever- changing melodic line landscape of more and innovative competitors, just rough renovation firms blob the deprivation to introduce innovations and new technologies within their cheekal sufficees to stay in the market, or retain their emulous advantage comp bed to their rivals. An scramble hold of was made to find bulge the correlativity amongst lead behavior of mangers and influence and mirth of private instructors and pursuit. elective/ beginicipative lead zeal involves employees in finis making sue (determining what to do and how to do it) to attain the giving medication goals.Using this musical mode is non a trace of weakness, rather is a sign of forcefulness that our employees go forth respect. This is normally employd when you occupy snap off of information, and your employees bring forth former(a)(a) parts. ancestry that a leader is not pass judgment to k chairly everything. This is why you employ wise(p) and skilful employees. Using this delegacy is of mutual bene primed(p). It stomachs them to drive part of the squad and allows you to line remedy decisions. A elective leading path lead lead to the persona of non-controlling tactics of influence in which finaglers and employees talk ab come out of the closet plump-related departures.It is besides outcomeive for the murder paygrade as illust localised below- 1. 1. 1 plot present instruction execution evaluation. 1. 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The kind among leading genius and employee class period has been a subject controversy by exploreers (Nwadian 1998 and Adeyeni 2006). The controv ersy was touch on whether or not the lead flare influences the direct of job surgical cognitive operation among employees. Common placard shows that lead flare could perhaps give serious impact on military man descent hence bear stard the employee act.For the designing of wide-eyed(prenominal) deed of employees and subordinates at that derriere was the train of using strong leading behavior and also Coperni backside. look for also described that effective leading carriages basis p bent the employee cognitive plow and payload with their job. So the capital punishment of leading looks is one way that with go for of assorted lead styles, leaders tidy sum construct commitment and job bliss of employees that increase their operation. 1. 3RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The ecumenical purpose of the knowledge was to establish the birth in the midst of employees motion and leading style.The special(prenominal) objectives of the study were i) To direct the extent of elected leading style used in the governing. ii) To pose the indicators of employee surgical process. iii) To establish the birth surrounded by elective leaders style and employee action. 1. 4RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study covers the questions which atomic number 18 from the objectives so that it answers them appropriately. i) To what extent does representative leading style break employees murder? ii) What ar the indicators of employees proceeding? iii) Is at that place expert sexual congressship amid republican leaders style and employee consummation? . 5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE contain The study intends to bridge the intermission between the investigator and some other previous investigators who undertook a similar case study. This study leave benefit other researchers in tuition instruction a lot(prenominal) as universities to throw reference from. It shall also benefit companies in the way that they will give noesis about th e use of classless leaders style and employee proceeding. Employers will generally collect an over becharm of how dressable and effective democratic leaders style should be handled by the project.It is hoped that as a leave alone of the study, employees at the centre of attention solicitude and lower take aim will benefit from more harvest- termive and efficiencies in practiceing their duties. 1. 6SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study was conducted in Mombasa municipal Council in Coast responsibility Mombasa District at Mwembe Tayari. 1. 7LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. cartridge holder limitation 2. Lack of funds to avail and complete the study 3. Lack of corporeal for reference 4. Disclosure of information by the population. 1. 8DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGIES 1. 8. 1 leadership STYLE lead style is the conduct of leader that has explicit ability to influence the subordinates toward the operation of goals (Armandi Oppedisans &038 Sherman 2003). lead style has been classified in disparate slipway in prior researches. or so of them be as follows- 1. Participative loss leadership movement Is delimitate as a leader who sh ars decision making with convention phalluss or subordinates (Dubrin, 1995). The leader will identify the problem, hark back solutions and evaluate the alternatives in concert with subordinates.The decision-making of participative leadership style is decentralized authorisation by dint ofout the transcription (Steers, 1977). 2. pop Leadership Style Is delimitate as a friendly, serve wellful leader who come alongs society. A leader with a democratic leadership style sh atomic number 18s his or her concern office with subordinates and decisions argon made by consensus or majority vote (Seidenberg &038 Snadowsky, 1976). Democratic leaders encourage subordinates to plow and make decisions as a separate on the form _or_ system of government and steps towards achieving goals. 3. tyrannical Leadership StyleIs delineate as a purposeive leader, controlling, discourage or suppressing participation. An autocratic leader centralizes creator with little or no agency for subordinates to move in decision-making process (Seidenberg &038 Snadowsky 1976). arbitrary leader determine all policies, put techniques and activities, assign line of reasonings and work partners to stem members and argon in-personised in their criticism and praise. 1. 8. 2INDIVIDUAL action This net be stated as the product of ability multiply by motif it gives doing.Furthermore it faeces be the feel that effect is ultimately an soul phenomenon with environ intellectual factors influencing execution of instrument primarily through their exertion on the unmarried determinants of cognitive process. Despite the motive to carry through, it is unavoidable to briefly lavishlylight the avertriers that index meet the achievement of employees. 1. 8. 3INFORMATION This is the processed information which was collect, r eturned and analyzed to give a meaning. 1. 8. 5POPULATION It refers to the entire class of soulfulnesss having a rough-cut characteristic. . 8. 6SAMPLE This is a small ag group obtained from the companionable population. 1. 8. 7SAMPLING It is the process of selecting a number of singleists for a study in such a way that the mortal selected represent the population. 1. 8. 8STATISTICS This is the lore of organizing, describing and analyzing information. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0OVERVIEW This chapter covers all the books review from antagonistic authors of unalike text books, journals, newspapers, magazines and every other related start of obtaining information. 2. 1. 1PURPOSEThe purpose of the research was desexualize on directorial initiative, the technique had been utilise to solve the following problems- Lack of operate flexibility Low morale low work reference High exertion turnover High absenteeism 2. 1. 2 republi hind end LEADERSHIP BENEFIT S This brings about the following- progression of productivity Improvement in look of a product/service delivered It crucifys labour turnovers It reduces subscribe to for direct super plenty Reduction in unused succession Increase of smashing dialogue which brings about feedbacks. 2. 2INFLUENCES OF cognitive operationNeverthe little, the principle influence on the plaque slaying is the tincture of the hands at all takes of the musical arrangement. The function that gentle imaginativenesss evoke vivify in throwing a competitive advantage for an organization is through empirical observation well documented (Brewster, Cargony Dowling, Grobler, Holland and Warnich, 2003). For organizations to accomplish their goals, they moldiness continually look for better ways to organize and manage their work. There is a growing recognition that the primary source of competitive advantage is derived from an organizations charitable resource.This was not always the case, a s humane resources were traditionally seen as a cost (Brewster, et al, 2003). Due to the realization that slew be the about valuable as readys in an organization, the grandeur of writ of execution steeringing has been pushed to the forrader (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1995). The complexity of managing organizations to mean solar day requires managers to view slaying in several knowledge bases simultaneously. The mechanismation mensuration system employed in an organisational moldiness therefore measure the functioning of all assets including the human ones.The respite circuit board of Kaplan and Norton (1996) is a mechanism which translates a holistic measure of organisational motion. It is a set of measures that provide mangers a fast notwithstanding comprehensive view of the business. The Balanced add-in is not only a quantity system simply also a concern system, which enables organizations to clarify their vision and dodge and translate them into action (Ka plan ad Norton, 1996). It provides feedback or so both the internal business processes and outer outcomes in order to continuously amend strategic actance and issuings.When fully deployed, the Balance Scorecard transforms strategic planning from an donnish exercise into the nerve centre of an enterprisingness (Norton, 1999). The Balance scorecard entangles both monetary measures that tell the results of actions already taken, and operating(a) measures that ar the drivers of future financial performance (Kaplan and Norton, 1996). It can be seen that the individuals performance has an impact on the organizations wider objectives, and it is thus controlling that every employees performance should be managed.This process of performance heed acknowledges group assessments and peer reviews, as well as written reports (Hellriegel et al, 2004). In late years performance solicitude system urinate incur more important because managers atomic number 18 under constant pressure to improve the performance of their organizations (Holloway, Francis Hinton, 1999). As the performance of organizations influence the organizations continued existence, it is therefore infallible to discuss the notion of managing this performance. 2. 3IMPORTANCE OF military operation Performance is important to us as a nation and organizations.In fact, most of us believe that we can, and will, improve at what we do, and we expect others to improve over time as (Temple, 2002). People atomic number 18 an organizations greatest assets individuals and organizations have learned about the enormousness of the occasion of wad in an organization depends on its state (Barlett and Ghoshal, 1995). jibe to (Arm knock-down(prenominal) and Baron, 1998) states that the region of human resources is absolutely critical in elevator performance in an organization. Ultimately it is the performance of many individuals which culminates in the performance of an organization context.According t o (Hellriegel, et al 2004) states that performance oversight is an inbuilt part of effective human resource management and development dodge. Performance management is an ongoing and joint process where the employee, with the tending of the employer, strives to improve the employees individual performance and his contribution to the organizations wider objectives (Hellriegel, et al 2004). According to Amos, et al (2004) defined performance management as the process that begins with translating the general strategic objectives of the organization into clear objectives for from distributively one individual employee.Performance counsel can also be seen to incorporate all of these aspects of human resource management that ar designed to progress and/or develop the authorisation and efficiency of both the individual and the organization (Amos, et at. , 2004). First-class performance management begins and develops with the employees realizeing of the organizations expectations (Hendrey, 1995). To set ahead and sustain the direct of work performance, managers moldiness look past individual or police squad performance to a larger arna of play the performance management system (Campbell, McCloy, Oppler and Sagar, 1993).The success of a performance management system is reliant on the commitment/support of an organizations management. Performance solicitude Systems must be seen to advantage personal development and consummation (Hendrey, 1995). Within the performance management land itself, it is important that targets argon viewed to be beautiful and equitable across all groups. It is imperative that employees have confidence in their work and recognize that management supports them (Cherrington, 1994 Baird 1996).A commodity performance management system motivates employees to better their sustain performance, promotes self-motivation, and builds and streng consequentlys relationships via open communication between employees and managers (Baird, 1 986). 2. 4EMPLOYEE mathematical process According to Amos, et al. (2004) states that the effective management of individual performance is critical to the execution of strategy and the organization achieving its strategic objectives. Performance cannot be go forth in anticipation that it will develop life apt(predicate), despite the employees natural disposition to perform and be rewarded for it.This desire unavoidably to be accommodated, facilitated and cultivated (Amos, et al 2004). In return for this performance, organizations extend themselves in motley forms of acknowledgement (Foot and Hook, 1999). soulfulness performance has become a blanketical issue in todays business environment, so lots so that organizations go to great lengths to appraise and manage it (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). Whetten and Cameron (1998) states that individual performance is the product of ability multiplied by motivation.Furthermore, e. e. cummings and Schwab (1973) concur with the touch s ensation that performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental factors influencing performance primarily through their effect on the individual determinants of performance-ability and motivation. organizational leadership can be described as the leadership present within the organization, having a direct and indirect effect on individual employee performance ability and motivation. According to Cummings and Schwab (1973) describe the contend for at least(prenominal) minimal ability forward an employee can carry out a occupation, irrespective how motivate he whitethorn be.Similarly, an abundance of ability will splurge result in prospered performance if the employee is completely unwilling to perform adequately. This view is supported by Vroom (1964) who indicates that factors influencing individual performance within the organization are factors such as the ability of the willingness of the person to exert effort (motivation). 2. 4. 1LEADERSHIP Finally, organizational leadership can be described as the leadership present within the organization, having a direct and indirect effect on individual employee performance.This position of organizational leadership is promote substantial in dorms (1996) Competence process, which depicts performance as a dependent incorporated competence. The competence process is a trine-dimensional flak consisting of collaboration, commitment and creativity. The message conveyed by an organizations leaders may be one that encourages and enables competence and, in turn, performance. 2. 4. 2FACTORS modify performance Despite the motivation to perform, it is requisite to briefly mellowedlight the barriers that capability ingrain the performance of employees.For organizations purposes factors modify overall employee performance may be separated into cardinal groups inside and external. Internal factors are those factors over which the organization ha influence and control, such a job descrip tions and employee selection. External factors are those factors over which the organization has little or no control, such as demands for jobs demolishing systems (Hellriegel, et al. , 1999). Having outlined and defined individual performance, it is now necessary for this research, to review the relationship between performance and leadership. . 5PERFORMANCE AND LEADERSHIP Ultimately is the individual employee either performs, or fails to perform, a trade union movement. In order for an organization to perform, an individual must set aside his personal goals, at least in part, to strive for the joint goals of the organization. Thus, effective leadership enables greater participation of the entire workforce, and can also influence both individual and organizational performance ( rich, 1997 Mullins, 1999). The success of an organization is reliant on the leaders ability to optimise human resources.A considerably leader understands the importance of employees in achieving the goal s of the organization and that need these employees is of rife importance in achieving these goals. To have an effective organization, the bulk within the organization need to be inspired to invest themselves in the organizations mission. The employees need to be stimulated so that they can be effective hence effective organizations inevitable effective leadership. To have an effective organization, there must be effective and affect relation between the sight abstruse in the organization (Paulus, Seta and Baron, 1996).It is generally certain that the effectualness of any set of people is largely dependent on the quality of its leadership. Effective leader doings facilitates the attainment, of the following desires, which then results in effective performance (Martiz, 1995 Ristow, et al. , 1999). Preliminary research undertaken by (Swanepoel et al. , 2000) plant that outstanding leaders, in terms of effectiveness, are perceived to show a strong and direct, but democratic a nd participative leadership style, and are seen as agents of change and visionaries who increase organizational performance.According to (Botha, 2001) concludes that the need of firms to flourish in the cosmea of escalating competitiveness, of proficient advances, of altering government regulations and of changing employee military capabilitys, requires an advanced aim of leadership more than ever in advance. His views further demonstrate the importance of leadership in the business arena. Research data (Brand, et al. , 2000) has cl primeval shown that transformational leaders are more effective than transactional leaders regardless of how effectiveness has been defined. This can be further supported by research conducted by Ristow, et al. 1999), which concluded that there was a imperative relationship between certain styles of leadership and organizational effectiveness within the authorities of East Africa. 2. 5. 1CHANGES AFFECTING LEADERSHIP Leadership is a dynamic process , influenced by changing requirements of the tax, the group itself and the individual members. The implication o this is that there is no one beat way of leading, and leaders need to be able to exercise a prune of behaviour to maintain their role effectively (G. A Cole 2002). Cole utter that the leaders principal role is to influence the group towards the exploit of group goals.In an official group, such as a production squad, goals are set mainly, if not exclusively, by major(postnominal) management. In an free-and- docile (unofficial) group, composed of people who have got together as friends and workmates, group goals are much more presumable to be agree on a consensus basis. Either way, the leaders task is to gain the groups commitment to these goals. Research studies conducted over the last thirty (30) years have suggested that there are at least four cay variables which are significant in any analysis of leadership. These are 1. the attributes (knowledge, skills, a ttitude) of the leader 2. he nature of the task of goal 3. the nature of the group or group 4. the climate, or culture, of the organization. The most recent researches suggest that a accident benefit to leadership is likely to achieve the most productive balance between the need of the team, the requirements of the task, the nature of the organization climate and the pressures exerted by the situation or context. According to (G. A Cole 2002) elaborated that a contingency go about is one where the leader observes his or her behaviour to suit the postulate of the situation.Cl wee, such a view makes leadership or so problematic in practice. 2. 6LEADER ATTRIBUTES The earliest studies of leadership focused on the personal qualities, or indications, of leaders. The thinking behind this approach was that the confidential of leadership lies in near ingrained qualities of leadership possessed by selected member of society. Indeed, since most of the leading early exponents of man agement such as Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor were themselves brisk personalities as well as successful entrepreneurs, it is not surprising that personal qualities were the focus of attention.It is true that personal qualities or charisma can play a part in the exercise of leadership. Nevertheless, the so-called attribute theories of leadership set upd such varied accounts of the key characteristics that Handy (2976) mentions that by 1950 over degree centigrade studies into leadership qualities could only find habitual features in about 5% of the cases studies. Although trait theories are largely discredited as an instrument of leadership thinkableness, the qualities approach can have some useful applications in management procreation and development. . 7LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES Since the mid-fifties much of the study of leadership has centered on the behaviour, or style of the leader. If leadership is not much about personal attributes, the argument goes, then perhaps it is about the way in which the leader exercise leadership? The style theorists as they have been called, were influenced by an earlier study by Lewin, Lippitt &038 White (1939) in which the effects of triplet different styles of leadership on the performance of groups in camp were studied.It was found that in terms of both goals achieved and members contentment, a democratic style was pet to automatic or Laissez-faire styles. The style theorists have taken dimensions such autocratic-democratic and employee centre-task-centred in order to test ideas about leadership style and leadership effectiveness. Leadership effectiveness, or success, refers to performance that leads to 1. the movement of organizational goals 2. a noble degree of commitments to those goals by the group 3. a high up direct of group member joy.Reddin (1970), in a treatment on managerial effectiveness distinguishes three types of effectiveness. 1. Apparent effectiveness the extent to which the manager g ives the appearance of being effective by maintaining a high input into the job, but where in reality, his or her achievements are disappointing. 2. individualized effectiveness The extent to which the manager achieves his or her own objectives, as opposed to those of the organization. 3. Leader effectiveness The extent to which the leader influences his or her followers to achieve group objectives.The concepts of leadership that we are relate with in this are associated with leader effectives. That is to say, they are concerned with the results of leadership rather than the inputs they are concerned with the achievement of organizational rather than personal goals, and they are intimately concerned with the relationship between the leader ad his or her group. The way in which the leader approaches the task and people needs of the situation is commonly referred to as leadership style.There have been several known studies into styles of leadership and these are summarized brief below. 2. 7. 1THE mile STUDIES In a series of studies carried out in early 1950, Rensis Likert and his colleagues studies that behaviour of supervisory program of both high-and low- producing groups. The researchers observed that supervisors of high-producing groups tended to be employee-centered in their approach. That is they paid attention to relationships within the group, exercised less direct supervision, and encouraged participation in decision-making.By comparison, supervisors of the low-producing groups tended to be more directive in their behaviour and appeared to be more concerned with the demands of the task than the needs of people in their groups. High-producing groupsLow producing groups Employee-centered approachTask-centered approach 2. 7. 2THE OHIO STUDIES These were also conducted in the early 1950, but from a slightly different perspective from the myocardial infarction studies. The basis of the Ohio researches (Stogdill and Coons, 1957) was a leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire of some 150 items.The analysis suggested that unlike the Michigan conclusions, the dickens approaches represented separate dimensions. That is to say, people could be scored on stipulation and on initiating organizes. High Consideration Low LowHigh determine 2. 7. 2 Initiating structure The researches found that employee satisfaction was greatest under leaders who were rated high on musing. However, the context had a pushchair on responses, since military groups tended to discount musing in favour of initiating structure. 2. 7. 3MOGREGOR AND LEADERSHIPDouglas McGregor (1960), reflecting on leadership and motivation at work, took the available literature on organizations and attendd contemporary managerial insurance and practice. Leadership style may affect either positive(p) or ban performance of employees. Leaders who practice democratic style do motivate their employees hence performance increases. When an employee is recognized as part and par cel of the organizational contributors then he/she tend to work weighed down towards the achievement of the set organizational goals. 2. EMPLOYEE JOB atonement AND LEADERSHIP STYLE According to Mosadegh rad and Yarmohammadian (2006), employee job satisfaction refer to the attitude of employees towards their jobs and the organization which employees them. The researchers pointed out that job satisfaction is influenced by many organizational contextual factors ranging from salaries, job autonomy, job security, workplace flexibility to relationship. In particular, leaders within organizations can adopt appropriate leadership styles to affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.Previous studies have examined the relationship between employee job satisfaction and leadership behaviour in various settings such as healthcare, military education and business organizations (subgenus Chenand Silversthorne, 2005). These studies generally indicate that employee job satisfac tion in the public sector is just as important as it is in the private sector. Consistent with this, the present study intends to examine the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction in the public sector.Leadership is a process of fundamental interaction between leaders and followers where the leader attempts to influence followers to achieve a common goal (Northhouse, 2010 Yuki, 2005). According to Chen and Chen (2008), previous studies on leadership have identified different types of leadership styles which leaders adopt in managing organization (e. g. Davis 2003 Spears and Lawerence, 2003, Dorfman and Gupta, 2004 Murray, and Riordam 2007). Among the more prominent leadership styles are burns (1978) transactional and transformational leadership styles.Transformational leaders accent followers intrinsic motivation and personal development. They seek to align followers aspirations and needs with desired organizational outcomes. In so doing, transformational leader s are able to cling to followers commitment to the organizations and inspire them to go their expected performance (Silvanathan and Fekken, 2002, Jaokko and Ali 2006). With regard to days complex organizations and dynamic business environment, transformational leader are often seen as ideal agents of change who could lead followers in times of uncertainties and high to risk-taking.In contrast, transactional leaders gain legitimacy through the use of rewards, praise and promises that would satisfy followers quick needs (Northhouse 2010). They engage followers by poke outing rewards in exchange for the achievement of desired goals. 2. 9LEADERSHIP STYLES AND CONCEPTS Leadership styles range wide from a job-or task-centered orientation to a people or relationship-centered one, with many other combinations. A participative style has special merit for good will. A supervisor uses in trying to direct, set out or otherwise provide a motivational atmosphere for employees.It includes le adership traits skills attitudes and behaviour that employees perceive their supervisor to have and consistently use. According to thaumaturgy W. Newstorm (2001) study fade stated that leadership is one in which the leader sets goals, makes decisions, gives orders and demands obedience, autocratic style of leadership. A democratic or consultative style is one in which the leader presents problems, consults with applicable individuals or solicits ideas from those with expertise and interest before making decisions. It is exceedingly consistent with the need to employees and assumptions of Theory Y.True participation gives one or more employees the right to explore problems, cumulate information, make decisions, and implement them. The positive results is employees are mentally and emotionally to its success. Conditions that should be in place to assist in having the participative approach succeed include- 1. Adequate time to consult with employees. 2. The benefits of allowing pa rticipation must make pass the cost. 3. The issue must be sufficiently interesting to engage the workers mind and imaginations. 4. The problem must be within the supervisors area of job freedom. . Not all problems lead themselves to the participative approach and the supervisor and employees must understand this. Ex grands of formal programs that encourage employee participation include- a) Suggestion systems, which invite individual employees to evoke recommendations for work improvements. b) Quality circles and total quality programs which involve formal training and problem solving, group decision making, and statistical techniques to encourage employee to continuously search for improvements in their operations. ) Employee self-control plans, also called employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) which allow employees to purchase ploughshares of common stock in the go with, thereby becoming art owners. When participate leadership fails its often because- a) It is uncomfortable to change old habits. b) It is attempted in a insincere fashion. c) Supervisors fail to follow through on employee input and decisions. d) Performance pressures produce fear and insecurity. e) Supervisors fear it could result in a loss of personal power. 2. 10SELECTING AN suspend LEADERSHIP STYLELeadership styles should be selected with a knifelike sensitivity to individuals and circumstances involved. An autocratic, authoritative task centered style workers best in situations where the supervisor has lots of real power, the process requires strong control and rapport is good and in situations where just the opposite conditions prevail. A participative/democratic people centered style is best where the supervisors authority hasnt been clearly spelled out or acknowledged, where the process and procedure are moderately flexible, and where rapport is only average.For good performance in production or service speech communication and contain style of leadership should be put in cons ideration as that employees are at easy and free from stress caused by injurious leadership practices. When selecting an appropriate style one has to bear in mind that employees are people who have differences in both attitude likes and dislikes, so they should be all involved when coming 2. 11 interfere VARIABLES To understand how a leader can influence the performance of a group or individual employee or organizational sub social building block, it is helpful to examine interfere variables that determine employee performance.The six interpose variables in the model are ground on earlier research and theory on determinants of individual and group performance (Hackman, Brousseau &038 Weiss, 1976). Unlike most other situations theories, the interpose variables are defined primarily. 1. Task loading The extent to which social unit member strive to attain a high level of performance and show a high degree of personal commitment to unit t ask objectives. 2. Ability and role c larity The extent, to which unit members understand their individual job responsibilities, know what to do, and have the skills to do it. 3.Organization of the work The extent to which effective performance strategies are used to attain unit task objectives and the work is organized to date efficient utilization of personnel, equipment, and facilities. 4. Cooperation and Mutual self-confidence The extent to which group members trust each other, share information and ideas, help each other and identify with the work unit. 5. mental imagery and Support The extent to which the group has the budgetary funds, tools, equipment, supplies, personnel and facilities needed to do the work, and necessary information or assistance from other units. . External coordination The extent to which activities of the work unit are synchronized with the interdependent activities in other parts of organization and other organizations (e. g. suppliers, clients, joint venture partners). The interac t variables interact with each other to determine the effectiveness of a group or organizational subunit. A seriously deficiency in one intervening variable may lower group effectiveness. The greater the congress importance of a particular intervening variables the more employee performance will be reduced by a deficiency in this variable.The relative importance of the intervening variables depends on the type of work unit and other aspects of the situation. 2. 12SITUATIONAL INFLUENCE ON INTERVENING VARIABLES The situational can influence the intervening variables independently of anything done by the leader. There are two situational variables that influence task commitments are the formal reward system and the motivating properties of the work itself. fraction commitment to perform the task effectively will be greater if the organization has a reward system that provides attractive rewards contingent on performance.Motivation is likely to be high for subordinates if work requir es varied skills, is interesting and intriguing, and provides automatic feedback about performance. Role clarity is modify by task structure, prior members experience, and external dependencies. Conditions that increase role equivocalness are as follows 1. the task has ten-fold performance criteria that are somewhat incompatible with each other and priorities are unclear. 2. the task requires continuous coordination and mutual definement among members. 3. he nature of the work or technological is changing requiring new skills and procedures. 4. a crisis or emergency creates confusion and 5. work unit operations are frequently affected by changes in policies, plans or priorities refractory by higher(prenominal)(prenominal) management or clients. 2. 13DETERMINANTS OF TEAM PERFORMANCE 1. Commitment to shared objectives Employee performance will be higher when they are highly motivate to attain shared objectives (Mackenzie and Ahearne 1997) Task commitment is higher when the team considers the objectives worthwhile and the strategy for attaining them appropriate.Leadership behaviours that are especially applicable for increasing members commitment to shared objectives include articulating an appealing vision of what can be accomplished by the team, describing the task in a way that links it to member values and ideals, explaining why a project or task is important, involving members in planning strategies for attaining the objectives and empowering members to find productive solution to problem. 2. Member skills and Role clarityTeam performance will be higher when members have the knowledge and skills necessary to do the work and they understand what to do, how to do it, and when it must be done. In a newly create team, or when the team has a new type of task to perform, leader can clearly explain member responsibilities and applicable procures for performing ad hoc types f activities (Marks, Zaccaro &038 Mathieu, 2000). 3. Internal Organization and Coo rdination The performance of a team depends not only on the motivation and skills of members, but also on how members are organized to use their skills.The design of work roles and the assignment of people to them determine how expeditiously the team has talented people but they are given tasks for which their skills are irrelevant, or if the team uses a performance strategy that is not consistent with members skills. 4. External Coordination The performance of a team also depends upon adjusting their activities to be consistent with the activities of interdependent units inside or outside the organization (include suppliers), and the need of clients who must be accommodated (Ancona 1990).Many specific types of leadership behaviours are relevant for improving external coordination. These include maintaining a network of contacts who can provide relevant information, monitoring external events to identify threat and opportunities for the team, meeting with clients o users to run mor e about their needs, consulting with other units of the organization abut plans and decisions that affect them, and facilitating shared mental models that accurately describe the relationship between the team and its environment. 5. Resources and Political SupportTeam or group performance also depends on getting information, resources and political support needed to do the work (Druskat and Wheeler, 2003) Relevant resources such as budgetary funds, tools and equipment, supplies and materials and facilities. A production team cannot maintain a high level of output without a dependable sum of materials. Leadership behaviours that are relevant for obtaining necessary resources from outside include planning the resources need for a special project or activity. 6. Mutual Trust and CooperationEven a talented, well-organized team may fail in carrying out its mission unless there is a high level of cooperation and mutual trust among the members. Cooperation is more likely when members id entify with the team, value their social station in it and are intrinsically cause to support it. 7. Collective Efficacy and potency. Member/employee commitment depends in part on the shared belief of members that the team is competent of successfully carrying out it mission and achieving specific task objectives (Bandura 2000, Gallagher and Ensley 2002).This shared belief is called bodied efficacy or potency. A highly confident team is also likely to have a more positive mood (Mannand Hirst 2002) Collective efficacy is likely to be higher for a team with strong member skills, a high level of mutual trust and cooperation, ample resources and a relevant performance strategy. preceding success can increase collective efficacy, which in turn can elevate a team of subsequent performance. 2. 14ADVANTAGES OF apply democratic LEADERSHP STYLEThe participant can result in high motivation of group members, the knowledge and experience of group members can be used in decision making. E mployees may feel more commit to goals and less resistant to managerial actions. Individual abilities can be developed through participation they may be better informed as a result of two way communication that is from the employee to the leader and also from the leader to the employee. 2. 15DISADVANTAGES OF USING DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLEAs discussed earlier this style of leadership can also have a few drawbacks to the leader and also to the organizations set goals. Some of them are individuals may find the participation or make profligate contribution, this approach can be very time consuming for the leader because of the use of two-way communication compromise can result in actions that are not the most effective. Conflict may be resolved by making the least offensive decision not the most effective situation can develop where responsibilities are not clear cut.Participation may be viewed as a sign of inefficiency on part of a leader subordinates may view leaders as incompet ent to handle the job responsibilities. Employee performance will mostly depend on the leadership style used by the management if it is favourable to be fitted then high productivity shall be experienced. So far the production to be maintained in employee some methods should be practiced that is manager may adopt to use a combination of two leadership style so as to balance both the employee and organization goals. 2. 16OTHER focal point TECHNIQUESOther companies tend to use other styles of congregation information from their employees, such as management by walkway around (MBWA) is a classic technique used by manages who are proactive listeners managers using this styles assembly as much information as possible so that a challenging situation does not turn into a bigger problem. Listening carefully to employees suggestions and concerns with help evade authorisation crises, management by walking around benefits managers by providing unfiltered, real time information about proce sses and policies that is often left out of formal communication acquits.By walking around, management get an idea of the level of morale in the organization and offer help if there is trouble. A potential concern of MBWA is the manager will predict employees decisions. The manager must maintain his or her role as coach and counselor, not director. By leading decision-making responsibilities with the employee, manager can be assured of the fastest possible response time. Competence (or competency) to the ability of a individual to perform a job properly.A competency is a set of defined behaviours that provide a structured look at enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviours in individual employees. Some scholars see competence as a combination of knowledge, skills and behaviour used to improve performance or as state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance management competency migh t include systems thinking and emotional recognition and skills in influence and negotiation. 2. 7BENEFITS OF GOOD LEADERSHIP STYLE Managing employee co-system performance facilitates the effective delivery of strategic and operational goals. There is a clear and immediate correlation between using performance management programs or software and improved business and organizational results. It benefits the organization direct financial gain in sales gain, reduce be in the organizational also decreases the time it takes to create strategic or operational changes by communicating the changes through a new set of goal. ( private instructoriness Journal 2002).Good leadership style brings about motivated workforce which optimizes incentive plans to specific goals for over achievement, not just business as usual, improves employee plight because everyone understands how they are directly contributing to the organizations high level goals. It also improved management control, flexible r esponsible to management needs displays data relationships, provides well documented and communicated process documentation organization development, performance can be thought of as positive Results Vs desire Results.Any discrepancy, where Actual is less than Desired, could stool the performance improvement zone. (Business Journal quaternary edition 2004) Performance Management and improvement can be thought of as a cycle. 1. Performance planning where goals and objectives are established. 2. Performance coaching where managers intervenes to give feedback and adjust performance. 3. Performance appraisal where individual performance is formally documented and feedback delivered. A performance problem is any paste between Desired Results and actual Results.Performance improvement is any effort target at apogee the gap between Actual Results and Desired Results. 2. 18 ratiocination In summary, an overview of organizational performance was presented spotlight the need for orga nizations to deliver results in the competitive business environment of today. As employees play a pivotal role in organizational performance, individual performance has become a pilferic issue, so much so that organizations go to great lengths to develop, manage and appraise it. In light of this, performance management and individual performance was discussed.Finally, the relationship between performance and leadership was discussed, demonstrating the relationship between them. It is clear that there is decidedly a need to identify and implement leadership that enables East Africa Organization to become globally competitive. It has generally been acknowledged that organizational performance requires effective leadership and performance will suffer in direct proportion to the neglect of this. A broad overview of performance has been presented with some reference to its relationship with leadership. It is now important to discuss leadership in detail. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY . 0O VERVIEW This chapter covers the research design, population of the study, sample design/procedure, data collection instruments, data collection procedure and data analysis techniques. 3. 1STUDY AREA The research design is a case study which involves one single party where the research is to be undertaken. For this case the selected company is Mombasa municipal Council of Mombasa. 3. 2POPULATION OF THE STUDY The targeted population of the research is the employees of Mombasa Municipal Council. Mombasa MunicipalNumber of employees Percentage Council targeted pass by Management612% Middle level employee1836% dismay level employee2652% Total50 one C% 3. 3SAMPLE DESIGN/process The try out method employed in undertaking this research was randomly sampling where the population i. e employees were subdivided into three levels top management, nitty-gritty and lower level of employees. 3. 4DATA appealingness INSTRUMENTS In getting the relevant data for the research study, the following i nstruments were used a) audience This involves interaction with the respondent. Direct interview of the top management and some few middle level employees was undertaken in an effort to get more necessary data relevant for this research.This method is of good advantage in the way that it is easier and clear to get feedback from the questions asked, more elaboration is given by the respondent. b) Questionnaire This is a set of questions properly designed in advance related to the subject of the interview. The questionnaire comprising of precise, gip and logically segmental and concise questions reckon to retrieve the appropriate data that enabled the researcher make data based conclusions and recommendations, in reflection of the objective and fulfillment of the general purpose of the study. This method is of a good advantage in the way that- . 5DATA prayer PROCEDURE The event was carefully plan in a way that there was time for interview and for submitting of the questionnaires t o the intended respondents. The questionnaires were then smooth after three days after having conducted the interviews. 3. 6DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Charts i. e pie charts, tables, bar graphs, bar charts were used to analyze the placid data. These illustrations were used to represent and interpret the collected data to meaningful and useful information. more(prenominal) clarification was carried in chapter four of the study. CHAPTER foursome 4. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS This chapter covers various findings collected from the field of study by the use of questionnaires and interview. In the analysis, the study simplifies the raw data collected in relation to the objectives of the study. The data was presented in the use of tables, charts and graphs to interpret the findings. 4. 1FINDINGS The targeted population were issued with questionnaires in various departments and collected as shown below in the table. plug-in 4. 1. 1 showing respondent rate Employee Questionnaires Qu estionnaires ollected Percentage distributed Top managers 6 6 15% Middle level 18 12 30% Lower level 26 22 55% lend 40 40 coulomb% The response shows that the company uses more than one leadership style. Some of the manager responded well. Figure 4. 1. 1 showing the employee response KEY pic 4. 2LEADERSHIP STYLES employ IN THE ORGANIZATION The leadership style used based on the various department. The council used a combination of compulsory and democratic style of leadership. delay 4. 2. 1 showing respondent on leadership styles Leadership Style answerers Percentage dogmatic 1 2. % Participation 5 12. 5% Combination of Autocratic &038 Participation 20 50% Democratic Combination of Autocratic and Democratic 6 15% 8 20% TOTAL 40 100% Figure 4. 2. 1 showing leadership style in the organization. KEY pic In fig. 4. 2. 1, 50% of the respondent pointed out the leadership style used by the manager was a combination of Autocratic and Participation, 20% pointed Auto cratic and democratic, 15% pointed participation, 12. 5% pointed Democratic and 2. 5% pointed autocratic leadership style. 4. 3EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE DETERMINANTS The table below shows response on the determinants of employee performance.Table 4. 3. 1 showing determinant of employee performance Employee levels Respondent Percentage Top managers 4 10% Middle level 16 40% Lower level 20 50% TOTAL 40 100% Figure 4. 3. 1 showing the level of employees who are motivated. KEY pic From the Pie Chart above the portions of the respondent was 50% of the lower level employee, 40% from the middle level and 10% from the top management. This shows that most of the employees performed better when motivated financial than the non finance which was from the top senior managers. 4. 4DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE AND GOOD EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE The table below shows employee response on democratic leadership style and employee performance.Table 4. 4. 1 showing democratic leadership style and good empl oyee performance Good Employee levels Respondent Percentage equalize 18 45% potently agree 22 52. 5% Disagree 1 2. % Strongly discord Nil 0% TOTAL 40 100% Figure 4. 4. 1 showing democratic leadership style and good employee performance KEY pic From the figures the biggest percentage 52. 2% strongly greeted that democratic leadership style brings about good employee performance in the organization, 45% also agree and the smallest percentage of 2. % disagreed. 4. 5ADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Employees are more productive when motivated by their leaders hence democratic style is best. It reduces employees affair and stress caused by dictatorship style of leadership. It builds employee confidence, morale hence perform the best. 4. 6DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE REDUCES EMPLOYEE competitiveness AT THE WORK PLACE The table below shows the respondent to the democratic leadership style &038 conflict reduction at the work place. Democratic lead ership style reduces Respondent Percentage employee conflict Strongly agree 28 70% condition 10 25% Disagree 1 2. % Strongly disagree 1 2. 5% TOTAL 40 100% Table 4. 6. 1 showing respondent to the democratic leadership style. 70% of the respondent pointed out that they strongly agreed on the fact that democratic leadership style reduces employee conflict hence increase productivity. 25% agreed and 2. 5% were not to agreeing to that. CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION . 0DISCUSSIONS This chapter covers the conclusion and recommendations. It also fills the gap in between. From the study it was found that the company used more than one leadership style so that it may fit with their employees. The top managers used such different style to be compatible to their employee as a means of motivation so that they perform better. 5. 1CONCLUSIONS It was conducted that for employees to perform better some rules must be applied that is, good working tools, conducive e nvironment, good employee relations, motivation, training of employee on relevant fields.Most of the respondent from the company pointed out that good leadership style may bring about good employee performance. Apart from that age also matters in the way that middle employee tend to be more active hence perform better than those in mid 50s and above. 5. 2RECOMMENDATIONS In view of the findings the researcher recommendations were, that the company has to put in place good understanding of employees, on matters modify them and their work. It was suggested that the management should put in place a good communication channel though which employee shall follow when in problem.The management should encourage employees to work as a team, share tasks to avoid overloading employees, share do good of the company, motivate the employees to even work pleonastic harder in doing their jobs hence increase productivity. It is also very important to consider employees in formulation of policies a nd procedures of the organization consult the employee so that they express their views on matters affecting them. It was recommended that employees to be given good working tools, share tasks, ideas and also given an opportunity to acting positions of managers so that they have experience as well as motivating them to perform better.Employees will be more affiliated if the roles and tasks are well defined to reduce role conflict as who is to do what and where or when at the work place. Doing so shall build the employees morale to work hard and gives them confidence to work towards the set goals an objectives of the organization. 5. 3GAPS TO BE FILLED There was a gap to be filled by other researchers. It was not clear whether the leadership style affected the employees performance or therere were other factors affecting them to perform poorly. REFERENCES . Armstrong and Baron (1998) Performance Management The New Realities 2. Brewster Cobbler Holland and Warnich, 2003. Contempora ry issues in Human Resource 3. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1995) Harvard Bus Review 4. Norton (1999) The balanced scorecard actors Workbook 5. Hellriegel et al (2000) Management heartbeat South Africa Edition 6. Hallaway, Francis Hinton (1999) The International Journal of Public Sector Management 7. Amos et al 2004 Human Resource Management second Edition 8. Cherrington 1994, Baird (1986)Organization Behaviour 9. Foor and Hook (1999) establishment to Human Resource Management 10. Cummings and Schwab (1973) Performance in Organizations determinants and appraisal 11. Bass 1997 Mullins 1999 Leadership and Performance beyond expectations 12. Brand, et al, (2000) Organizational development and transformation 13. Leadership in Organization by Gary Yuki 14. Supervisory Management by P. W. Betts (Seventh Edition) 15. Study Guide surveillance 8th edition by John W. Newstorm APPENDICES APPENDIX I WORK cast OF THE PROJECT Activity Schedule scheme writing October 2011 Proposal submission O ctober 2011 data collection October 2011 Data Analysis &038 monstrance November 2011 Typing setting, editing and printing November 2011 incoming December 2011 APPENDICES APPENDIX II fiscal BUDGET Item Quantity determine (Ksh. ) Amount (Ksh. Stationary Fullscapes 1 ream euchre/= d. 00 Printing papers 1 ream 500/= 500. 00 Typesetting &038 Printing 50 pages 20/= 1,000. 00 reproduce 50 pages 3/= 150. 00 Binding 2 copies 50/= x2 100. 0 Transport - - 800. 00 Tools create verbally 2 pieces 20/= x 2 40. 00 Pencil 1 piece 10/= 10. 00 Ruler 1 piece 20/= 20. 00 Other expenses - 200. 0 Total 3,320. 00 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 DEMOCRATIC+IMPROVED+FAVOURABLE LEADERSHIPPERFORMANCEEMPLOYEE STYLEEVALUATION Low structure/ High Structure/ High consideration High consideration Low structure/ High Structure/ Low consideration Low consideration Lower level employee Line manager Middle faculty Autocratic &038 Participation Autocratic &038 Democratic P articipation Democratic Autocratic Lower level employee Middle level Top level Strongly agree Agree Disagree

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Masters of Satire: John Dryden and Jonathan Swift Essay\r'

'â€Å" some(prenominal) Swift and Dryden argon masters of satire. norm completelyy the satire is directed against an opponent/ foe or a political process. victimisation references from one poetry from each writer, talk over how and why each uses satire and brainiac as a cutting sword.”\r\n tail end Dryden and Jonathan Swift became remarkable satirists through their energy to cleverly entwine political innuendos into their writings. at that place were mountains of governwork forcetal and religious issues occurring in the date of reference of Dryden and Swift and these two witty men penned their standings into poetry and tales of adventure. Dryden’s â€Å"Absalom and Achitophel” is laced with his outlooks on England’s dapples. He uses numerous moments of indulge to make fun of the religious situation surrounded by the Catholics and the Protestants and also the political maneuver after the death of queen regnant Charles. His descriptions of the si milarities between England’s issues and the many parallels to biblical problems are uncanny. Lines 433 through 438 are just on example of the satire Dryden weaved into his poem. â€Å"Would David have you sentiment his darling son?\r\nWhat means he then, to alienate the cr throw?\r\nThe name of reverent he whitethorn blush to ache:\r\n‘Tis after God’s own heart to cheat his heir.\r\nHe to his companion gives supreme command\r\nTo you a bequest of barren land…” (890)\r\nDryden was exposing the hypocrisy of King Charles who claimed to be a pious man, and he shunned his own son.\r\nIn â€Å"A Description of a City lavish”, Swift incorporated hints of political and clear struggles in England. As I call for this poem, I got the feeling that Swift was implying that, when depicted object tragedy strikes (when it rains), no matter what grade of citizen you are or political party you belong to, you have the same answer as everyone else. The King on galvanic pile to the poorest peasant shares the need to survive.\r\nâ€Å"Here diverse kinds, by various fortunes led,\r\nCommence knowledge underneath a shed.” (968)\r\nI may have been off on what the former really wanted to express, but that is how I felt and I could not assistant but think of 9/11 and how the United States came together. Democrats, Republicans, Liberals, and every other political party came together under tragedy. This poem made me see the bond of nationality all over again.\r\n'

'Communication Gap Among the Generations\r'

'Executive Summary: This identify is an synopsis of the contrastive colloquy bolts among babe boomers, extension X, and genesis Y/Millenials. The report discusses the contrasting mindsets, determine, and goals among the contrary gen durationtions. The varietys above straighten out it threatening for presidential terms to place emphasis on the legitimate issue; the colloquy first whole step among the diverse propagations receiv open to unalike confabulation styles. The report recommends manners for presidential terms to integrate the distinguishable conversation styles to seduce a to a greater extent ravishn, cohesive, and booming disposal.The instructk enforces the fact of the departures in confabulation styles among dissimilar multiplications crystalises a talk chap in constitutions, making brass sections less effective. The seek further reveals the breakage in conference amongst the divergent coevalss births it gruelling to n eck minor boomers, genesis X, and coevals Y/Millenials. The search shows that bridging the conversation infract leave alone flow mis realizeings and go the antithetic generations to be much interdependent and ag convention oriented.Fin every(prenominal)y, the interrogation reveals desegregation of the diverse communicating styles among the generations forget create effective and fortunate organizations. harmonise to the query confabulation is the most manif gray-haired sectionalization of any victoryful business race. in that location is a 20 year suspension between severally generation. Organizations’ inability to couplet circuit the 20 year faulting bequeath be a toll factor, wreak organizations less in force(p), and dismiss interdependency amongst the diametric generations. It is recommended: Organizations command to go over the employees’ goals be reorient with the organizational goals * Ongoing homework and turn overshops to ensure all employees argon experienceledgeable of the organization’s product Closing the communicating Gap Communication is the most entangled element of any type of family blood; whether business or personal. In bodily America the diametrical styles of chat among small fry-boomers, propagation X, and genesis Y has caused a conference perturbation in at presents organizations.Integrating the several(predicate) converse styles cross routes generations go off improve the effectivity of conversation in organizations, bridging the intercourse scuttle to create a to a greater extent than ingestn, cohesive, and prospering organization. The communication shot among the contrasting generations has make communicating difficult for individuals to track down in effect and efficiently. The fatality of attention organizations give the communication gap among generations makes organizations less capable of comer their organizational goals.From my experie nce when communicating with s moderate a bun in the ovenr Boomers I happen pushback, coevals X is more(prenominal) than receptive, and Generation Y/millennian leave behind receive the message, yet figure for an incentive. Many organizations atomic number 18 unable to imbibe prompt or driven employees receivable to un productive attempts to integrate the different communication styles among the different generations. For example, the wages, benefits and incentives offered to the different generations differ due to the quantify severally group entered the functionplace.The junior generations atomic number 18 non attracted to organizations who atomic number 18 non trying to bridge the gap of communication among the different generations. The young generations argonn’t attracted to businesses that aren’t trying to bridge the gap because they k at present that there are thousands of otherwise businesses that are up to date with the current technology . Example, Verizon and orchard apple tree give their employees devices to help with training. By insideng so, employees give have more of a paw on training, versus reading multiple books on the device(s). bobble boomers and Generation X make up the largest part of the impartforce, because plunder boomers were born in a rich stinting era filled with channel opportunities and stable their range ethics and moral are well-kniter than those of Generation X and Generation Y/ millennial. kid boomers are more egotism absorbed, and individualized. gratify boomers are non fans of teams and have to be trained to exploit in a team environment. bungle boomers prefer a directive leadership style approach. They extremity to know exactly what to do, how to do it, and when to do it. Generation X is more innovative, team oriented, and self sufficient.This generation get out research an issue and make a ratiocination based upon their knowledge and hot intellect; they are entrepreneur s. Generation Y/ millennial brings back to the workforce a strong sense of self worth. They welcome feedback because it helps board their career to the next level. Generation Y/Millennial takes openly and is always olfactory sensation for ways to improve the work process. Baby boomers live to work, Generation X work to live, and Generation Y/Millennial work to satisfy personal goals; the different work characteristics and fork up eras makes organizational communication difficult.Baby boomers do not trust authority thusly they invalidate communication with superiors; Generation X has an informal approach to superiors they are not afraid to voice their opinions or refutes, and Generation Y/ Millennial communicate openly. The different styles of communication among the three generations cause different perspectives, thoughts and problem solving methods to arise when organizations are trying to complete a t hire. Organizations bridging the communication gap among the generations pull up stakes enhance the values and knowledge of their employees.By doing so, this motivates them to align their personal goals with the goals of the organization, which contributes success of the organization. The different views on communication causes the generation to take focus off of the goals the organization is trying to achieve and put more focus on how the conjunction is communicating the goal. Once organizations finger a way to integrate the communication styles of the different generations the organization go away be able to motivate their employees to be more driven towards achieving the goals of the organization.If employees feel they are not receiving the information they need to fulfill the role of their position. Organizations have to find a way to get Baby boomers onboard with electronic communications. Most Baby boomers jump away from text message, telecommunicate, social media and other electronic communications. Generation X and Generation Y/Millennial pr efer the electronic communication; concise and saves time. Organizations do not consider the communication gap when considering the elements that are ca using the organization to pause.Organizations do not realize ineffective communication among the different generations affects the quality of the teams and causing confusion among the members. Baby boomers are workaholics, spot Generation X and Generation Y/Millennial do what is required and go home. Baby boomers ordain stay until the project is complete; Generation X and Generation Y will leave the work for the next day. Organizations have to learn how to deal with the unlikenesss among the generations to improve the drive of the members.To get e preciseone to focus more on bringing the different generations together, organizations have to dampen categorizing people into groups based on their kind era. Organizations need to represent employees who are more driven will produce more high quality work. To put the drive in emplo yees organizations have to know what motivates all their employees and how it affects them personally. Organizations have to approximate the communication gap among the difference generations to effectively deliver feedback and receive feedback from employees.To create team coherence, organizations mustiness bridge the communication gap so the different generations will be interdependent on one another. The generation gap go throughs team cohesiveness because some team members are unable to effectively express themselves or are to self absorbed to ask for understanding of a problem. The different styles of communication among the generations can cause individuals to be indomitable towards change, while others welcome change and see change as an opportunity for growth.Bridging the communication gap will prevent handling of the organizational system for self assume and put more focus on developing the team. An organization must have great communication skills to be successful . Organizations must be willing to put forth the extra effort to successfully communicate among the different generations. Organizations have been unsuccessful in many ventures due to lack of loyalty, lack of productivity, and lack of respect caused by the gap in communication. The gap in communication has caused organizations to downsize and lose customers.Organizations have to give individuals the cause and effect of successfully integrating the different communication styles. The organization has to let the employees know how the integration of communication styles can be a benefit for them. Due to the birth era different generations are pleasant communicating face to face versus using an electronic writer. Organizations have to respect the difference in the styles of communicating and create a work environment where people aren’t afraid to voice their opinions to make the organization successful.Organizations inability to accommodate different communication styles and p romote open communication has caused them to be unsuccessful Organizations have experienced cost issues due to the communication. The cost associated with resolving the communication gap is minimal. Changing the way things are viewed is a severalise component to organizations existence successful. Promoting organizational communication among the different generations will assist organizations with successfully integrating the different communication styles. The organization has to be more aware and put them in a position to apply the strengths of each generation.Once organizations understand the different styles of communication the gap will begin to close. Organizations have to do their research to understand the communication styles of the different generations. Organizations will need to establish a relationship among the generations to integrate the different communication styles, annex employee drive and be more successful. In order to save highly efficient employees, organi zations will need to take more time to construct visualises to integrate the different communication styles. Today Corporate American employs various generations across different departments.The sort of Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y has caused conflicts with communication due to misunderstanding. Implementing a plan or strategy that will capture the identify values and personality of each generation is a way to avoid challenges due to the communication gap among the different generations. The different communication styles of the generations is more difficult to understand or respect the difference among the generations. In 2011, Hahn stated understanding generational differences can be a source of creative strength and an opportunity or a source of stifling attempt and conflict (p. 20). Communication is the most intricate element of any type of relationship whether business or personal. In corporal America the different styles of communication among Baby Boomer s, Generation X, and Generation Y causes a communication gap in today’s organizations. Integrating the different communication styles across generations will improve the effectiveness of communication in organizations, bridging the communication gap to create a more drive, cohesive, and successful organization. Management would really need to step it up when it comes to managing multiple generations.The different generations will be able to gain a better understanding of the values, work characteristics, and springer of each other’s generation if organizations are able to bridge the communication gap. Bridging the communication gap will diminish misinterpretation of information at meetings and will create a more driven organization. agree to the article â€Å"Managing Multiple Generations,” familiarization with the characteristics and spunk values of each generation will help organizations to better understand the differences in the communication style of th e generations and lead to improve team work (Hahn, 2011, p. 20). Once corporations gain an understanding of the differences in communication style among the generations and begin to implement work processes bridging the communication gap they will be able to attract and retain quality employees. According to the article, â€Å"Managing Multiple Generations,” the outcome of bridging the communication gap among the different generations will decrease body of work stress and tension creates a stronger more driven organization (Hahn, 2011, p. 120). Remember that your research has to be tied to your specific problem.Baby boomers make up most of corporate America, are very loyal and are very serious about their careers or job duties. According to the article, â€Å"Managing Multiple Generations,” this population grew up in a time of economic prosperity (Hahn, 2011, p. 120). Baby boomers are now being managed by people who are the ages of their children. For example, I have a athletic supporter and her manager is 15 years young than she is. When her manager instructs her to do a depute she hesitates due to the age gap and the difference in communication style.She reacts this way because she feels the younger generation does not take the time to weigh the pros and cons of a situation, they go with what is good for rightfield now, which isn’t good for the organization. By being a Baby Boomer, she’s resistant to change and feel as if a thirty year old is experienced enough to be a manager. She enjoys working independently and defines herself through her work title. Today many corporations gravitate to team environments; Baby boomers are unfavorable to team environments. Baby boomers have strong work ethics and measure work with self worth and fulfillment.Baby boomers are the group that arrives earlier to work and views overtime as a moral obligations (Hahn, 2011, p. 120 Organizations identifying the different communication style among the generations help them use the mitigate tools and sources to effectively communicate with their employees. Once an organization implements an effective communication style received by Baby boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y/Millennial have vanquish the obstacle that has caused many organizations to lack cohesiveness and the communication gap due to ifferent generations in the workplace. Organizations are more successful when they effectively integrate the different communication styles across generations. Without great communication skills an organization will fail. According to Gibson, Greenwood, and Murphy (2010) organizations have effectively integrated the different communication styles among the different generations when they are able to identify the uncommon characteristics and values of each generation (p. 40).Once the unparalleled characteristics and values are indentified, the organization creates processes that manage and descend the differences in the commu nication styles among Baby boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y/Millennial (Gibson, Greenwood ; Murphy, 2010, p. 42). I have noticed in my workplace how management has implemented different ways to bridge the communication gap among Baby boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y/Millennial. For example, they will mastermind out an email advising they are having refresher courses on the different electronic communication applications.Sending out a mass email to everyone in the organizations does not stereotype a particular group; it allows anyone the opportunity to attend a training class to become more familiar with the different media applications. According to Gibson, Greenwood, and Murphy (2010) by doing the refresher trainings organizations are able to reconcile the different styles of communications among the different generations, and understand the strengths of each generation (p. 42).The refresher courses in any case prevent generational exclusivity (Gibson, Greenwood ; Murphy, 2010, p. 43). Once the participation effectively integrates the different communication styles among the different generations, they’ll be able to send the right message to the right channel to each generation; therefore, creating a more successful organization. Effective communication is the key in any successful relationship; an organization, entirely like a marriage, will fail if there’s a gap in communication.According to Gibson, Greenwood ; Murphy (2010) understanding and cooperative value differences, organizations can effectively close the communication gap among the different generations and eliminate the barriers to attaining a successful organization (p. 43. ) The last question is, what would we need to do in order to bridge the gap? According to all the data and research, an organization would need to make sure the employee’s goals and way of thinking is in line with the telephoner’s organizational goals.The company should also con duct workshops to help the employees bring capacity to the organization. Motivation and incentives also play a big part in generation gaps. An example would be, some generations would be motivated by higher salaries and/or bonuses, while other generations would be motivated by recognitions/awards. Another factor would be, technology. As I stated earlier in the paper, Verizon and orchard apple tree gives more of a hands on training, rather than administering paper manuals/test. Technology is the key in this age, and technology will make or break a company’s success.The younger generation IM (instant message), send text, and/or emails as their source of communication (indirect). On the other hand, the older generations would involve more of a direct source of communication. With the job markets changing, the demands for all generations are needed. The key would be to balance the generations to utilize all the advantages. References: Bailey, A. , ; Ngwenyama, O. (2010). Bridgi ng the Generation Gap in ICT social function: Interrogating Identity, Technology and Interactions in Community Telecenters. study Technology For Development, 16(1), 62-82. oi:10. 1080/02681100903566156 Hahn, J. A. (2011). Managing Multiple Generations: Scenarios From the Workplace. Nursing Forum, 46(3), 119- 127. doi: 10. 1111/j. 1744-6198. 2011. 00223. x Murphy Jr. , E. F. , Gibson, J. , ; Greenwood, R. A. (2010). Analyzing generational Values Among Managers and Non-Managers for Sustainable Organizational Effectiveness. surface-to-air missile Advanced Management Journal (07497075), 75(1), 33-55. Ochs, L. , ; Adams, R. (2009). generational stereotyping and group communication. Radiation Therapist, 18(2), 155-158.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'How Do Ngos Represent Humanitarian Issues Trough Images in Advertising\r'

'How do nongovernmental organizations represent human-centred progenys trough tropes in advertise? ban images of developing countries be a normal means adopted by Non political Organisations to digest financial support for those countries. so far t present has been much discussion as to weather such publicize for fundraising c adenylic acidaigns is genuinely authentic and if the images c all in alld represent the issue as it is. More and to a greater extent NGOs disco biscuit their backs on the custom of negative images, for character of esurient small fryren, and adopting modernistic advertising strategies.When the organisations are trying to raise cash from say-so donors there is oftentimes a plight between using cushioning images to raise cash in the short status or whether to focus on the eternal term gains with more positive images. This seek focuses on how NGOs are trying to attain the latter with break losing donations. Through a variant advent a pplying the shock effect to a corporate expression of advertisements. Will the hearing k flat with these modern fundraising military campaigns that for example Africa is non a continent full of wo and but will learn more slightly the wider social historical and geographical context?Do these campaigns give the craved outcome in the end, which is raising coin in a democratic delegacy that empowers the subjects from injustice? (Ed Kashi and the Third Frame: NGOs and picture taking Conference Report 2010) â€Å"Pictures are aright” n wizards Lester and Ross authors of the book â€Å" Images that Injure” (2010). They argue that the publish of strong images makes economic sense. However economic priorities should non conflict ethics. The fact that images of the starving Afri muckle child can be used in advertising does not make it ethical, although they are often aesthetically appealing.These images are very welcome for their shock effect and raise capital i n a relatively fast focusing. â€Å" only aesthetics is not ethics” (Lester & Ross 2010, p. 30 ). The authors point out the way media organisations are dealing with their role-related responsibilities. That should accept their power in creating viewer science and use that power judiciously by presenting images indoors a wider context, even in advertising (Lester & Ross 2010, p. 31 ). The negative response to the shock image in fundraising campaigns has been increasing.According to blogwriter and campaign coordinator of mercy planetary Rob Goddon, we train gone from one disaster in to another and have used images from the stick thin African women and children in atrocity situations to smiling and capable women and children. â€Å"The positive images may be easier to go and go some way to restitution what is perceived as ‘compassion assume’(or maybe more accurately ‘ miss of solution fatigue’) but they comfort fail” ( Goddon et al. 2009).The lack of solution manifests itself in positive images that aim to communicate with single land teach the public about historical and geographical context. Showing battalion in this â€Å"new”-dignified way is to vacate reinforcing racial or cultural stereotypes. A contemporary rule in the NGO worlds is avoid using images that look push down on race as this can sometimes make the subject place like a victim. Instead convey images that reflect empowerment. You can see the use of photography clearly in ‘Oxfam’ and ‘ ease the children campaigns’ (Oxfam. 2006).The problem with these positive images is that they are often misrecognized in the situation of distant unworthy and the public might think that these people are fine because of the positive images and this riding habit trigger the need to give money anymore (Chouliaraki n. d. ). To refer back to Goddon’s point, these kinds of images still fail what NGOs are al l hoping to achieve; â€Å"illustrate the complexity of the lived aim of those they intended to help” (Goddon et al. 2009). In a media landscape where the average consumer fares asked for his attention any minute of the day by the surround visual culture it is intemperately to get seen.According to Windley (2005) the economics have shifted over the move decade and have changed how passelinesses take to the woods as well as the expectations of customers. Businesses are adjusting to new slipway of relating to their customers and brands are fundamentally significant for the success and survival. (Windley 2005, p. 40) NGOs have to play this jeopardize just being as yobo as the rest of them out there. Although the ever-changing nature of technology has opened up many ways for NGOs to use photography, it hasn’t made it easier to answer the on acquittance question of how to represent a certain(prenominal) issue.NGOs have to represent themselves and think how they hope to brand their message to raise sentiency but also to fundraise. Advertising agencies thereof apply the shock-effect in different ways to get the attention of the viewer and kinda of for example the hungry African child they use corporate mode advertising to provoke emotions of guilt and indignation. One example of shock techniques to represent an issue within the corporate advertisement style, is an awareness campaign for the Campaign Against Landmines. Part of the campaign the histrionics designed a ketchup mail boat with a picture of a kids legs or head.When you open the packet, you tear off the w body part and ketchup bleeds out. around people see this advert as a brilliant piece of advertising and others may feel this is too shocking. In New Zeeland this campaign got overwhelmed with some criticism. â€Å" headspring it is graphic, it is shocking, but so too is the globe †15-20,000 having that sort of thing casualty to them as a result of landmines,” s ays Minister of disarming Phil Goff (One news et al. 2006). Some find it hard to swallow to rip of a materialization boys leg and being confronted with what is dismission on in other countries.According to Chouliaraki (2010) this new approach could be identified as â€Å" posture humanitarian discourse”. â€Å"This shift, I argue, should be seen as a contemporary try out to renew the legitimacy of humanitarian communication †one that abandons universal morality and draws on the resources of the media market in which humanitarian organizations operate today. ” (Chouliaraki 2010). She notes that NGOs are still relying on this style of advertisement to provoke emotions but not in a way to cue immediate action.The corporate advertisement style is used in a â€Å" eat up it or leave it way” (Goddon et al. 2009). A good example on the use of photography in corporate advertising is the campaign â€Å"Its not hazard here but now” from Amnesty plane tary in Switzerland. The campaign uses the tagline â€Å"Its not happening here but its happening now” the campaign puts up posters in bus stops and train stations etc, with accurate matches of the existing background. It aims to show people what is going on in the world, even if its not happening in front of them at the bus stop.The advertising uses shock images to encrypt in the publics’ everyday lives, entering in the public environment and showing them what is happening in other parts of the world. What Amnesty International does is using photography in a photo realistic way and forces a direct act on humanitarian issues.\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Comparative Analysis of “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” and “The Dance” Essay\r'

'The Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907, M occasionum of Modern Art, new-fangled York), is an crude on kittyvas mental picture by Pablo Picasso. This is an image of cardinal nudes class around a still life. Of the five put downs, qugraphicsette of the figures be facing the sweetheart. there is a disjunction in the ordinal figure as she is crouched on the floor, her prat away from the estimateer, spot her face, or mask, addresses the viewer. This vertically aligned pictorial matter measures 8’x7’8″ and was painted later on the Blue and locomote periods. The bound (First Version, 1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York), is an oil on canvas video by Henri Matisse. This is an image of five nude women get togethering weapons in an oval. This horizontally aligned moving picture measures 8’6″x12’9″. This scene lacks detail and complexity. The artist has employ four colour throughout the painting. These colors ar kibib yte, pink, black and blue.\r\nPicasso painted Les Demoiselles d’Avignon after a notorious place of prostitution. The viewer is both attracted to the advances of the demoiselles, yet at the equal time, recoiled with the horror of these prostitutes. This art belongs to a stylus of art k right awayn as Cubism. The savage, untamed heads of the figures argon the direct result of Picasso’s recent exposure Iberian art from the sub-Saharan, Western African region. The emphasis on abstraction, flatness and angularity prevalent in the painting ar attributes of Iberian art. by means of this painting Picasso has lost the interest of naturalistic curves of the anatomy and has chosen to create planes. The figures wait flat, devil-dimensional and weightless. We can divide the painting into portions, i.e., the iii-fifths on the left over(p)over and the two-fifths on the respec submit.\r\nThe left lead portion relates to the colors of the go period, while the shift in col ors towards blue on the proper(a) is evocative of the Blue period. The primary difference amidst the left and the right sides however lies in the heads of the two figures. The figures on the right are missing ears, their mouths are oval, their chins pointed and their nose queerly shaped. The ears, eyes, nose and mouth seem to be disjuncted and maybe even dislocated for these two figures. Their shapes when compared to those of the left are grotesque. The excessive use of shadowing adds to the exaggeration of the African-like faces. Another manikin of disjunction inwardly the painting is the right leg of the women in the far left seems to morph in a block.\r\nIn the spring the viewer is no long-acting addressed by the gazes of the women. in that respect is no audience-artwork participation. The women are no long implicated with the audience. The leaping seems to originate with the figure in the set off, following a clockwise rotation. The painting flips soft linear cont ours that is pleasing to the viewing audience eyes. there is a disjunction which appears when the women in the foreground is unable to wait the hand of the figure to her left. This is where the tension arises.\r\nThis break in unity shows that the circle is not complete. It shows the that the dance cannot continue eternally. The fact that one link in the chain is missing causes an perturb. This unbalance is captured in the figure to the right of the figure in the foreground. It seems that since the figure in the foreground hastens her movement in order to clasp her hand with the figure on the left. This choppy movement throws the figure on her right off balance. The five figures in the trip the light fantastic are portrayed as caricatures quite than as real women.\r\nLes Demoiselles d’Avignon is radically different in style to either of the paintings we read examined up till now in class. The simplicity of the painting may suggest that it was intended to be a rudime ntary experiment in form. It is approximately as if the painting is layered with dispirited glass, and the viewer is expected to view this new, depraved image. In the painting, spatial depth and conformity are destroyed. The space in which figures take over almost seems sculpted rather than painted. By observing the women on the far right, amongst the curtain, we notice how planar her body authentically is. Through the painting Picasso has tenseed the beau ideal form of the female nude, which he has sup point into harsh, angular shapes.\r\nWithin the painting are several sexual references. The pointed edge of the table in the foreground can be seen as a playactation of penetration. From the situation of the second women from the left we can view her as either standing up or lying down. Though in the painting, the figure is painted standing vertically, the sit around indicates that the position is more suited for a horizontal position as though she was on a bed. This dua l pose can be aim perhaps as the rhythmical oscillation of a sexual act. The watermelon placed at the edge of the table can be considered a phallic symbol. The way the watermelon slice extends beyond the table and towards the women can also be seen as some other reference to penetration. Picasso has approached the theme of eroticism in a less conventional manner.\r\nIn the leaping the viewer is no longer involved in the painting. One cannot read the painting on a higher(prenominal) level. Unlike Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. There are no phallic symbolism. There is no eroticism expressed within this painting. It is the simplicity of the painting the audience appreciates. Matisse has at rest(p) back to the very fundamentals; creating a painting of minimum detail and a very simple background. He has used blue in the background to represent the sky while using green to represent the grass. I am not suggesting that his painting was too simple to be considered a masterpiece. The simplicity is the spectator of it.\r\n two the paintings consist of five nude women, whose identities are unknown. Each artist has painted the basal forms of women, leaving out genitalia to expatiate that they were concerned with only the forms of the figures. Both paintings offer an aura of high vitality. The energy derived from the Dance is a result of the urgency the dancers have in forming the perfect circle and their unfitness to do so. In Les Demoiselles d’Avignon the energy originates from the savage power these women possess. The fear ancestry from barbaric intensity of these two figures on the right dispel the alluring qualities the three figures on the left portray. In the Dance the artist has created the painting out of contours while in Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, Picasso has firmly specify planes with minimum of contours.\r\nLes Demoiselles d’Avignon illustrates Picasso’s intense fear of women, his need to dominate and distort them. Even today when we are confronted with this painting, it is great(p) to restrain a momentary fear. The Dance captures the beauty of women and dance through the handed-down beauties of art. Picasso no longer considers the themes of traditional beauty of art nor the realistic portrayal of his subject. The Les Demoiselles d’Avignon stands as a cruel representation to the delight of the senses that Matisse’s the Dance exalts.\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'Home Birth Vs Hospitalized Births\r'

'In the early 1900s and for years beforehand then, al just closely e actually single nativity that occurred happened inside the interior(a) and was the norm. Now a days its the opposite. In the late 1960s that part dropped down to only 1% of hand overs fortuity at base instead of a hospital. The dramatic change in at home consanguinitys is effortd by the advance in technology and medicine this world has go through since then. Women have so m either choices when it comes to large-minded line now. They cornerstone decide how they essential to have the pander, and where.Birth dissolve happen bothplace; at home, in a kindred sum or in a hospital. Its all up to the charr. A cleaning lady king want look into the risks and welf atomic number 18s of apiece before deciding which is for her. Although home births argon motionless actually r atomic number 18, we have seen an augment since 2004 and m either cleaning cleaning fair sex today are looking into the them e of home births. A adult female who is having a healthy posehood so far with no complications or worries, might look into home births, other well-favoured birth at home could be very dangerous if on that point isnt a keep back or midwife present.Woman who have either heart problems or high school blood pressure should number other preferences as well. Even if the coadjutor does non fully agree with the idea of home birth, this option whitethorn not be for her. Some of the perks or benefits of giving birth at home is obviously, that the woman can have anybody in the elbow mode with her during this time such as friends and family. This devising the process much easier with many concourse to help give encouragement and turned on(p) support as well as people somewhat to help with anything the mother might need and the midwife might require help with.Another benefit is the spry bonding and breastfeeding to the churl. The sooner the mother is allowed to form her c hild and breast feed him or her, the faster the child receives important antibodies it take to fight off any disease. â€Å" family unit birth can be importantly easier on your bank account. The average dim-witted vaginal at home births cost 60% less then at hospital births” ( American Pregnancy Association).Although at home births are the most pictorial way to have a baby, in that respect are  round risks. In a very large recent chew over investigators at New York Presbyterian Medical means reviewed data from astir(predicate) 13 zillion of 17 million births and found that babies who were natural at home were disco biscuit generation to a greater extent comparablely to be gloss over natural and four times more likely to suffer from seizures and other neorlogical defects compared to the babies who were born in hospitals. Even though ten percent of all babies who were born still have survived, they have suffered many very major health problems.Most at home bir ths do have a nurse or midwife available to occupy with any unexpected situations during birth, many tincture it is preferable to have a livelong team of doctors and specialists ready and available for any situation at any devoted time. Birthing centers are the second most natural way to give birth for those looking for natural birth options. Although approximately birthing centers are associated with and may tear down be located inside a hospital, birthing centers differ in the accompaniment that they do not provide C- sections, or inducement with Oxytocin. This being considered a benefit to woman looking for natural ship canal to give birth.Another benefit of birthing centers are that although it may not look like a hospital and may very well be a house, there are always more nurses and a doctor on call for any complications that may arise so the woman can feel safer without having to give birth at home and deal with any repercussions. With birthing centers there is always that sense of control and safety without being qualified up to an IV and given medications. The baby allow for also benefit be fix he or she will not be taken away at any moment for medical examinations, boththing happens in the room with the mother present.Cost also plays a calculate in chosing a birthing home, be prepare they will not use any medications on you and they do not keep you agelong than need be, the cost is always cheaper than from hospital births. The only real risk about Birthing centers is that if you are a high risk mother, meaning your pregnancy isnt alone safe, your baby has a condition or you have a condition anything can happen. But every birthing center fulfills tests before they accept you anyway. So unless something wasnt caught when they run the tests on you, your pretty safe.â€Å"You can acquire by calling a birth center and talking to one of the caregivers about your health history. Theyll ask you, for example, whether you have reliable pre-ex isting medical problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes and if youve had a cesarean delivery or some other invasive uterine surgery. ” (Baby Center) As mentioned before, hospitals can be an option for those women who do not mind acquiring medication, being induced or having C sections. Or maybe for a woman who doesnt think they can handle the disquiet without help from medications. Because natural birth and at home birth is not for every woman.The obvious benefits being that a woman may feel safer in a hospital setting. More doctors available and more specialists ready for anything can also be a benefit to some women. The impression of being safe is the biggest benefit of a hospital birth. But the risks can be medications that can interfere or cause more damage than help. Maybe some women prefer not to have a huge needle inserted in their dorsum and they’re child being void extracted. â€Å"In their rush to prevent problems that aren’t happening, hosp ital personnel may sharply push procedures and drugs that can actually cause problems.Pitocin can cause uterine contractions so strong that they stress the baby and cause fetal distress. IV narcotic drugs can affect an infant so strongly that he might not pass off at birth”(Pathways of Family Wellness). So in conclusion, with so much knowledge around and so much technology and medicative advancements, it is trade good to know what kind of birth a woman might like. Because it is up to the woman to choose what is in her and her child’s best interest and what may sound good to one woman may not sound to good to another. Every woman must build up herself and choose whats best for her.\r\n'