Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Treaty of Waitangi Essay Example for Free

The Treaty of Waitangi Essay The historical and contemporary interpretation of the treaty of Waitangi and the Doctrine of aboriginal title in New Zealand case law and statute, reflects the pattern of what Moana Jackson refers to as the â€Å"colonizing context† the treaty itself came into being on 6th February 1840. It was signed between the British crown representatives and different Maori chiefs who were from the Northern North Island. With the signing of the treaty, a British governor post was established in this region and Maori people became the British subjects. In this research paper I’ll analyze the circumstances surrounding the signing of the treaty, effects of the treaty and various tribunals and cases involving the treaty. I’ll also discuss how clear understanding of the colonizing context can lead to adjustment of the constitution. The basis of Moana Jackson’s argument is as a result of the difference between the British’s and Maori language with reference to the treaty of Waitangi. The interpretation between the two languages differed and so there is no agreement as to what the original treaty was because it was differently interpreted. To the British, the treaty mandated them to rule New Zealand and created the post of a governor who was bestowed with full powers to run all affairs affecting this territory but on the other hand, the Maori had a different understanding. Both parties disagreed on various issues even after the treaty was signed. The treaty also gave these people the right to maintain their properties and land. Since the treaty was signed in 1840, the treaty was never valued and existed in ‘darkness’ up to 1970s. All this time the courts never recognized it. It did not address their ownership rights plus they were not fairly treated by the British government. Form the 1960s up to date, the Waitangi treaty has been reviewed a number of times and so many problems have been brought to the light. A commission to inquire on the treaty was formed in 1975 to address the affected areas and this is what came to be referred to as the Waitangi Tribunal. It was supposed to establish and solve the breaches that were committed by the crown or by its agents. To many, the treaty is referred to as the founding document of the state of New Zealand though there are various reasons that made Moana Jackson to refer to it as a â€Å"Colonizing Context† and one of this reason was that, though the treaty was as a result of mutual understanding between British and Maori, the treaty was not recognized until recently when it received limited acknowledgement. In the past, the New Zealand governors and the colonial office clearly supported the treaty for it gave to rule over Maori people as well as to be the leader of New Zealand. After the 19th century case, the treaty was declared null and void and this meant that the treaty was not to be honored both by the government and courts. This declaration was entrenched by the claim that was being advanced by the British’s that New Zealand became a colony after the January’s proclamation of 1840 was passed. The treaty only worked in favor of British and Hobson used the treaty as a pretext to claim leadership of North Island. They breached the terms of agreement to the treaty and denied Maori people the ownership right of the island. They claimed that it was uninhabited when they first arrived in that region arguing that maori’s population was small and sparsely distributed and this did not give them any right to do that and arguing that they Maori of that time were not organized is racism and Euro centrism. According to the doctoring of aboriginal title these people had a right to maintain their soveignity as it was something that had persisted as customary and native rights. The aboriginal title was analogous to â€Å"freehold ownership† also meant not complete ownership. To make a valid constitution, both parties must sit down argue and reason together. The question over whether the treaty was binding or not was decided over a number of court cases such as WI parata versus Bishop Wellington in 1877. In this case the judge dismissed the treaty as neither binding nor valid. In the case of Te Heuhen Tukino Vaotea district Maori land board, the treaty was ruled to be valid in 1938 especially where it talked about the transfer of power and sovereignty but was he was quick to add that it was not what that was agreed â€Å"All dealings with the aborigines for their land must be conducted on the same principles of sincerity, justice and good faith as must govern your transactions with them for the recognition of†¦ they must not be permitted to enter in to any contracts in which they might be the ignorant and unintentional authors of injuries to them serves.† The treaty according to the crown led to the establishment of fair relationship between the two groups. Cooperation determined the relationship between the community and distinctive development but it should be known that there could be no cooperation without mutual understanding. The Waitangi tribunal was created under the 1975’s Act of the Treaty. Its main aim was to investigate complains that were made by the Maori people on the violation of the treaty by the crown. Also in 1988, through the amendments that were made, the tribunal was supposed to investigate whether the treaty was feasible and whether some activities that were being done by the crown were consistent with the treaty. The treaty according to Moana Jackson was a ‘colonial context’ as it led the Maori not to lose land to other people except to the crown. This made British to buy more and more land due to the competitive amount that they paid for a piece of land. This attracted many settlers from England for they were sure that from then the land was theirs. Thus it is evident that the treaty was a vehicle to colonization. The signing of this treaty paved way for colonization of New Zealand by Britain. They spread their culture to every facet until it became the culture of the 19th and 20th centuries. Many colonialists migrated to New Zealand after being enticed by their counterparts with pieces of land in this region. The colonialisation process followed the views of the British governor Gibbon Wakefield who wanted the colonial settlement to emulate those in their mother country. When a large number of colonialists arrived, land started to become a scarce commodity and as a result disputes emerged over land between the local people and the British’s. Maori became angry and started making complains over lack of adherence to the Waitangi treaty and in 1860s, the colonialists with the help of troops from Britain steadied themselves in the region by suppressing these rebellions. As wars persisted many Maori died in the process and this worked to the advantage of the colonialists who took these pieces of land. Loosing sovereignty was a big blow to the liberty of Maori. The signing of the treaty led chiefs to pass their mandate to the European authority. They were forced to do that so that they would be offered protection and citizenship as well as duties and privileges given to the British. The Maori’s were allowed to sell their land only to the British something that made other European nations to keep off. By knowing the colonizing context of this treaty, it is possible to make adjustments to the constitutional framework. Before any amendment is made or before a new law could be made, the impact of the same must be weighed. Because it is clear now that the treaty of Waitangi led to the alienation of land for the Maori people. Safe in this knowledge, some provisions could be passed so that this problem can be addressed so as to prevent further alienation. The findings of this research paper are that the treaty was signed on understanding that the British personnel would rule over Maori people but their rights to own properties. The British violated the contract and used it a tool for advancing their politics. All complains that were made by the Maori people should be addressed in the constitution as it is the governing body that protects the interest of all citizens. A policy like selling land only to the British should be abolished as everybody has a right to do whatever they want. Bibliography. Adams P. 1977. Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand 1830- 1847.Auckland University Press. Christchurch library. Treaty of Waitangi: The Waitangi Tribunal. Accessed at http://library.christchurch.org.nz/reference/treatyofWaitangi/tribunal/ on March 28, 2008. Claudia O. 1990. An Illustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi. Welling Allen and Union Manutukutuku T.E. 1989. Newsletter of the Waitangi Tribunal Macmillan Brown Library HD 1120.5 AL- M294 Mc Neil K.1989. Common Law Aboriginal Title. L4NZULR 97. Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2007. Waitangi Tribunal claim Maori Language Week Retrieved at http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/maori-language- week/waitangi-tribunal-claim on Monday, March 31, 2008. Wakalahama T. 1993.A Guide to the Waitangi Tribunal. 2nd Edition. Km 78 Z7- N5328 Macmillan Brown Library.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

New Age Of Technology :: essays research papers

New Age of Technology Technology and computers are increasing factors in the collision repair industry. With time being a concern for customers in many cases, the work we do has become easier to manage and faster to produce because of technology. Over the past ten years, equipment technology has increased our productivity. Today, a computerized management system helps you to quickly process repair orders, job costing, and management reporting. Some examples of this new technology are the Shark, Pro Spot PR-10, Magna Rack III, and HVLP.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first example, the Shark, is a computer driven measuring system designed to be operated electronically. Shark is not a modified mechanical or laser system. This is a totally new measuring system designed to be computer driven using ultrasound technology. Unlike mechanical or laser systems, the beam does not need to be level or parallel when it is placed under the vehicle The intelligence of the system automatically calibrates its position in relation to the points being measured. The system re-calibrates itself to the vehicle every time you measure. If you reposition the beam after the first measurement, or if the car moves, the beam will automatically re-calibrate from its new position, still producing the same measurement results.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Before repairs, Shark provides you with the ability to prove existing damage. This information is good to the vehicle owner and insurance company because it not only explains the cost of repair, but eliminates unnecessary work and surprises.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  During the straightening procedure, Shark will monitor selected underbody and upperbody reference points. Shark then calculates deviations from the manufactures specifications. You can view the whole pulling process, as it happens, live on the colored monitor. When the job is complete, you may command Shark to store or print a report in a variety of formats that you can select, recording the condition of the vehicle as it leaves your shop.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another example is the revolutionary, Pro Spot PR-10 resistance spot welding system that can add increased profitability and flexibility to any collision repair shop. By pressing the trigger button, the PR-10 electronically provides precise control of the squeeze time, current sensing pre-heat, weld deviation, hold time, cool down and duty cycle. Within seconds, this cycle is completed and you can begin another weld. There is no possibility of an operator rushing a weld because of the pre-timed programming. The operator must wait until the green light has turned on before doing the next weld. The PR-10 assures you of consistent, properly timed welds whether it is the first weld or the hundred and fiftieth weld.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  With the PR-10 there is no shielding gas or wire to replace and dark

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

How Has Computer Hacking Interfered Modern Society Essay

How has computer hacking inferred modern society? In this passage I will be talking briefly about the fundamentals of computer hacking from the past to the present. Computer hacking has changed more over time resulting in computer emergences to corporate system shutdowns. This research paper will be talking about three major parts of computer hacking. The first concept of hacking is the origin of creation. The next part will be how hacking has affect on the present-day society. Finally, the last piece of information will be going over the future of system hacking. What is a hack you may ask your self but not have an answer or one word phrase for the term? A hack has always been a kind of shortcut or modification, a way to bypass or rework the standard operation of an object or system. The first computer hackers emerge at MIT. They borrow their name from a term to describe members of a model train group at the school who hack the electric trains, tracks, and switches to make them perform faster and differently. A few of the members transfer their curiosity and rigging skills to the new mainframe computing systems being studied and developed on campus. Hacking groups begin to form. Among the first are Legion of Doom in the United States, and Chaos Computer Club in Germany. The movie â€Å"War Games† introduces the public to hacking. A computer hacker intends to ruin businesses performing an act much more unprincipled than an enthusiastic biologist ‘hacking’ away at work or theory. The truth is that computer hacking is in fact easy in the general sense, but more consideration must be given. Some aspects of hacking are used in everyday life and you may not know that accessing wireless internet from another person’s account is considered wireless hacking even though your borrowing there connection. During the 1970’s, a different kind of hacker appeared: the phreaks or phone hackers. They learned ways to hack the telephonic system and make phone calls for free. Within these group of people, a phreaker became famous because a simple discovery. John Draper, also known as Captain Crunch, found that he could make long distance calls with a whistle. He built a blue box that could do this and the Esquire magazine published an article on how to build them. Fascinated by this discovery, two kids, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, decided to sell these blue boxes, starting a business friendship which resulted in the founding of Apple. By the 1980’s, phreaks started to migrate to computers, and the first Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) appeared. BBS are like the yahoo groups of today, were people posted messages on any kind of topic. The BBS used by hackers specialized in tips on how to break into computers, how to use stolen credit card numbers and share stolen computer passwords. It wasn’t until 1986 that the U. S. government realized the danger that hackers represented to the national security. As a way to counteract this menace, the Congress passed the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, making computer breaking a crime across the nation. During the 1990’s, when the use of the internet became widespread around the world, hackers multiplied, but it wasn’t until the end of the decade that system’s security became mainstream among the public. Today, we are accustomed to hackers, crackers, viruses, Trojans, worms and all of the techniques we need to follow to combat them. Hackers were classified into three unusual types the first category is called In-house hacker. In-house hacker is an employee who is responsible for operating and maintaining the system, who interacts immediately with the system as a programmer or data entry employee and is aware of all the system security capabilities and gaps. He and should be the guard of the system but for different motivations he hacks the system and gets what he needs betraying all the trust given to him. The second type is called super hacker who doesn’t interact with the system but at the same time monitors the system on daily basis and has an eye on what is going on and what type of data is entered at what time then depending on the entries he decides the moment he should get these information and retrieve them for personal motivations while the third type is called professional hacker and this hacker is very strong and capable of getting any type of data, he has the ability of persuading the user or the operator to provide him with the needed information by programming tricks or user friendly screens and this kind of hackers often gets unique training specially when being used in military tasks as what happened in the cold war. Theses are just brief ways hackers have impacted the modern world we all live in. Within the past year there have been two major cases right in the area. Both involve extensive damage, and both are currently in court. The closest case is that of Thomas Crandall, otherwise known as St. Elmo’s Fire. Crandall is accused of estroying attendance and discipline records in a computer at Central Technical and Vocational Center. Police charge that Crandall used a personal computer at his home to access the computer. He is also accused of doing $25,000 in damage to files at Waste Management Inc. of Oakbrook, Ill. Crandall’s attorney claims that many other students also had access to the computer, and that to single out Crandall in unfair. Hackers are responsible of the huge development in computer and internet technology, but these days we consider them as thieves and intruders who penetrated our own privacy and used the achievements they were behind for their own benefit. Hackers have different opinions and motivations. However, they all share the spirit of challenge and always trying to prove their capabilities of doing what all believe is impossible maybe because they were mistreated, or doubts surrounded their abilities and past achievements. Hackers believe that information should be shared and they fight against information owning. Effects that hacking caused and still causing to the society can’t be ignored. Hacking nowadays is taking new phases and the danger is increasing because we are now living in a society that runs by ICT, and any attack to the ICT especially in advanced countries will cause vital consequences. ICT still lacks a powerful security tools that are capable of tracking, catching hackers, and protecting computer systems from their attacks. My own view is that the best way to protect ICT from hackers is to study their psychology and try to understand their way of thinking, because hackers are human beings, who have two sides; evil and good, and they used to show their good side but suddenly they turned to be evil. The reasons which caused the transformation from good to evil individuals should be studied and given the highest priority in the war against hackers because since we put our hands on the cause, we can fix it to reach for better effects. People can grocery shop, earn degrees, receive bank statements and pay bills from their laptop or PC. The possibilities are endless when it comes to simplifying life with the help of the World Wide Web, but at the same time possibilities are endless hackers to complicate your life with cyber crimes. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines a hacker as both â€Å"an expert at programming and solving problems with a computer† and â€Å"a person who illegally gains access to and sometimes tampers with information in a computer system. † Those three reasons I have stated above were the hackings past present and future. Until technology stops growing the possibility of hackers is limited less.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Spiders in Space on Skylab 3

Anita and Arabella, two female cross spiders (Araneus diadematus) went into orbit in 1973 for the Skylab 3 space station. Like the STS-107 experiment, the Skylab experiment was a student project. Judy Miles, from Lexington, Massachusetts, wanted to know if spiders could spin webs in near-weightlessness. The experiment was set up so that a spider, released by an astronaut (Owen Garriot) into a box similar to a window frame, would be able to build a web. A camera was positioned to take photos and videos of the webs and spider activities. Three days before the launch, each spider was fed a house fly. They were provided with a water-soaked sponge in their storage vials. The launch took place on July 28, 1973. Both Arabella and Anita needed some time to adapt to near-weightlessness. Neither spider, kept in holding vials, voluntarily entered the experiment cage. Both Arabella and Anita made what has been described as erratic swimming motions upon ejection into the experiment cage. After a day in the spider box, Arabella produced her first rudimentary web in a corner of the frame. The next day, she produced a complete web. These results prompted the crewmembers to extend the initial protocol. They fed the spiders bits of rare filet mignon and provided additional water (note: A. diadematus can survive up to three weeks without food if an adequate water supply is available.) On August 13th, half of Arabellas web was removed, to prompt her to build another. Although she ingested the remainder of the web, she did not build a new one. The spider was provided with water and proceeded to build a new web. This second complete web was more symmetrical than the first full web. Both spiders died during the mission. They both showed evidence of dehydration. When the returned web samples were examined, it was determined that the thread spun in flight was finer than that spun preflight. Although the web patterns made in orbit were not significantly different from those that were built on Earth (aside from a possible unusual distribution of radial angles), there were differences in the characteristics of the thread. In addition to being thinner overall, the silk spun in orbit exhibited variations in thickness, where it was thin in some places and thick in others (on Earth it has a uniform width). The start and stop nature of the silk appeared to be an adaptation of the spider to control the elasticity of the silk and resulting web. Spiders in Space Since Skylab After the Skylab experiment, Space Technology and Research Students (STARS) conducted a study on spiders planned for STS-93 and STS-107. This was an Australian experiment designed and conducted by students from Glen Waverley Secondary College to test the reaction garden orb weaver spiders to near-weightlessness. Unfortunately, STS-107 was the ill-fated, catastrophic launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia. CSI-01 started on ISS Expedition 14 and was completed on ISS Expedition 15. CSI-02 was performed on ISS Expeditions 15 through 17. The International Space Station (ISS) conducted two well-publicized experiments on spiders . The first investigation was Commercial Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert Number 3 or CSI-03. CSI-03 launched to the ISS on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on November 14, 2008. The habitat included two orb weaver spiders (Larinioides patagiatus or genus Metepeira), which students could view from Earth to compare the feeding and web-building of the spiders in space against those housed in classrooms. The orb weaver species were selected based on the symmetrical webs they weave on Earth. The spiders appeared to thrive in near-weightlessness. The second experiment to house spiders on the ISS was CSI-05. The goal of the spider experiment was to examine the changes in web construction over time (45 days). Again, students had the opportunity to compare the activities of spiders in space with those in classrooms. CSI-05 used golden orb weaver spiders (Nephila claviceps), which produce golden yellow silk and different webs from the orb weavers on CSI-03. Again, the spiders constructed webs and also successfully caught fruit flies as prey. Golden orb weaver spiders were selected for CSI-05. Joe Raedle / Getty Images Sources Witt, P. N., M. B. Scarboro, D. B. Peakall, and R. Gause. (1977) Spider web-building in outer space: Evaluation of records from the Skylab spider experiment. Am. J. Arachnol. 4:115.