Saturday, August 31, 2019

Nrs-437v | Introduction to the Study of Ethics

My Moral Compass The personal values that help contribute to my worldview and philosophy of nursing that is most important, is my religion. I am a Christian and this means that I am to be Christ like in my every day life and work. I am taught to treat others as I would want to be treated and care for them as I would do for myself. I am to help the sick, wounded, poor and widowed. Nursing in its roots are very much the same thing. Helping the ones who are unable to help themself. The underlying rule for nurses is to do no harm. My spiritual vales shape who I am, what I am and what I do.If I do all things as if I were doing them to the glory of God, then I know all things would turn out right. When obeying God and his commands, my spiritual values teach me that all things work to the good of God and according to his purpose. Values are defined as the criteria to which actions, people and states of affairs are judged ( Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychology 2006). Merriam-Webster defines morals as, of, or relating to principles of right and wrong behavior (Merriam-Webster). Ethics are the science of morality and also known as moral philosophy.It is defined as it seeks to discover a consistent principle by which human actions and character can be judged ( The Macmillan Encyclopedia, 2003a). The values, moral, and ethics that may effect my obligation to nursing practice are ones that are from the American Nurses Association’s code of conduct. It is my duty to follow a specific set of nursing code of ethics, which states the nurse shall in all professional relationships, practice with respect and dignity, worth and uniqueness of every individual, unrestricted by factors of socioeconomic class, personal attributes or the nature of the health problem.The primary commitment is to the patient, family, group and or community; protecting the health, safety, and the rights of the patient (American Nurses Association, Inc, 2001). My personal views, values, philosophy a nd world-view has been at times difficult in my nursing career. A couple of times we had to terminally wean patients from the ventilator support they were on, being a Christian and nurse you are to do no harm and this really plagued my values early on in my career.I was after a while to rationalize that because these patients had no quality of life and were clinically brain dead, we were not causing any harm. Then we had a patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). This patient was on ventilator support, unable to move his extremities, he was able to talk and make his needs known, and was able to eat. Then one day the doctors advised the patient related to the fact he was silently aspirating he was no longer going to be able to eat, and would require a feeding tube.The patient refused a feeding tube and then terminally weaned himself off the vent. It was my duty to take care of this patient on the day of the terminal wean, which was difficult for me, because I felt as though he was committing suicide and we were assisting his efforts. For me this was no different than the hospital being a Dr. Kevorkian. I do not believe in suicide and it was very difficult to maintain and preserve his wishes even though they were totally against my beliefs and values.I had to take care of him no matter what his decision was, whether right or wrong his values led him to remove his life support. During my years as working as a floor nurse I have now developed my own sense of what I feel is ethical and humane. I believe that if a patient has already been placed on ventilator support, instead of withdrawing life support, you place them on a do not resuscitate, do not treat, palliative measures only. Person’s whom are on long-term ventilator support, in most cases will develop some sort of infection, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.If you do not treat the infection and just let nature takes it’s course whether it is to have the body heal itself or if the body is overtaken in death, they can then die peacefully by letting nature take its course. Some personal thoughts on how my values, morals and ethics effect my nursing are that no matter what my beliefs and values are, when entrusted with the care of a patient, I may disagree with their values, beliefs, or ethics, however I am to treat them no different than I would someone with whom I do share the same values, beliefs or ethics with.My job is to treat everyone with the same type of respect, kindness and attention I would anyone else. I used to get a little unnerved at times when the hospital would have very important person (VIP) in the hospital and that particular patient would get preferential treatment, such as a 1:1 nurse. My education and beliefs are that no one in particular is a VIP, that all patients should be treated as if they were the president of the United States or the Queen of England. References values. (2006). In Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Psychology. Retr ieved from http://library. gcu. du:2048/login? qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. credoreference. com/entry/hodderdpsyc/values Merriam-Webster. (n. d. ). Merriam-webster dictionary. Retrieved from http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/moral ethics. (2003). In The Macmillan Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://library. gcu. edu:2048/login? qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. credoreference. com/entry/move/ethics American Nurses Association, Ince. (2001). Code of ethics with interpretive statements. Retrieved from http://www. nursingworld. org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics. pdf

Friday, August 30, 2019

A Dirty Job Chapter 21

21 COMMON COURTESY Charlie was torn – he really wanted to take his sword-cane, but he couldn't carry it while using the crutches. He considered duct-taping it to one of the crutches, but he thought that might attract attention. â€Å"You want me to go with you?† Ray asked. â€Å"I mean, you okay to drive, with your leg and all?† â€Å"I'll be fine,† Charlie said. â€Å"Someone needs to watch the store.† â€Å"Charlie, before you go, can I ask you something?† â€Å"Sure.† Don't ask, don't ask, don't ask, Charlie thought. â€Å"Why did you need me to find these two women?† You robot-necked bastard, you had to ask. â€Å"I told you, estate stuff.† Charlie shrugged. No big deal, let it go, nothing to see here. â€Å"Yeah, I know you told me that, and normally that would make sense, but I found out a lot about these two while looking for them – no one in either of their families has died recently.† â€Å"Funny thing,† Charlie said, juggling his keys, the cane, his date book, and his crutches by the back door. â€Å"Both bequests were from nonrelatives. Old friends.† No wonder women don't like you, you just won't leave things alone. â€Å"Uh-huh,† Ray said, unconvinced. â€Å"You know, when people run, when they go as far as faking their own death to get away, they are usually running from something. Are you that something, Charlie?† â€Å"Ray, listen to yourself. Are you back on your serial-killer thing? I thought Rivera explained that.† â€Å"So this is for Rivera?† â€Å"Let's say he's interested,† Charlie said. â€Å"Why didn't you just say so?† Charlie sighed. â€Å"Ray, I'm not supposed to talk about this stuff, you know that. Fourth Amendment and all. I came to you because you're good, and you have contacts. I depend on you and I trust you. I think you know that you can depend on me and trust me, right? I mean, in all these years, I've never put your disability pension in jeopardy by being careless about our arrangement, have I?† It was a threat, however subtle, and Charlie felt bad for doing it, but he just couldn't let Ray continue to push on this, particularly since he was in unexplored territory himself – he didn't even know what kind of bluff he was covering. â€Å"So Mrs. Johnson isn't going to end up dead if I find her for you?† â€Å"I will not lay a hand on Mrs. Johnson or Mrs. Pojo†¦Mrs. Pokojo – or that other woman either. You have my word on it.† Charlie raised his hand as if swearing on a Bible and dropped one of his crutches. â€Å"Why don't you just use the cane?† Ray said. â€Å"Right,† Charlie said. He leaned the crutches on the door and tried his weight on the bad leg and the cane. The doctors had, indeed, said that it was just a flesh wound, so there was no tendon damage, just muscle, but it hurt like hell to put any weight on that foot. The cane would work, he decided. â€Å"I should be back to relieve you before five.† He limped out the door. Ray didn't like being lied to. He'd had quite enough of that from his desperate Filipinas and was becoming sensitive about being taken for a fool. Who did Charlie Asher think he was fooling? As soon as he got the store squared away, he'd give Rivera a call and see for himself. He went out into the store and did a little dusting, then went to Charlie's â€Å"special† rack, where he kept the weird estate items that he made such a fuss about. You were only supposed to sell one to each customer, but Ray had sold five of them to the same woman in the last two weeks. He knew he should have said something to Charlie, but really, why? Charlie wasn't being open with him about anything, it seemed. Besides, the woman who bought the stuff was cute, and she'd smiled at Ray. She had nice hair, a cute figure, and really striking light blue eyes. Plus there was something about her voice – she seemed so, what? Peaceful, maybe. Like she knew that everything was going to be okay and no one needed to worry. Maybe he was projecting. And she didn't have an Adam's apple, which was a big plus in Ray's book lately. He'd tried to get her name, even get a look at something in her wallet, but she'd paid in cash and had been as careful as a poker player covering her cards. If she'd driven, she'd parked too far away for him to see her get into her car from the store, so there was no license number to trace. He resolved to ask her name if she came in today. And she was due to come in. She only came in when he was working alone. He'd seen her check through the window once when he was working with Lily, and only came into the store later when Lily was gone. He really hoped she'd come in. He tried to calm himself down for his call to Rivera. He didn't want to seem like a rube to a guy who was still on the job. He used his own cell phone for the call so Rivera would see it was him calling. Charlie didn't like leaving Sophie for this long, given what had happened a few days ago, but on the other hand, whatever might be threatening her was obviously being caused by his missing these two soul vessels. The quicker he fixed the problem, the quicker the threat would be diminished. Besides, the hellhounds were her best defense, and he'd given express instructions to Mrs. Ling that the dogs and Sophie were not to be separated for any amount of time, for any reason. He took Presidio Boulevard through Golden Gate Park into the Sunset, reminding himself to take Sophie to the Japanese Tea Garden to feed the koi, now that her plague on pets seemed to have subsided. The Sunset district lay just south of Golden Gate Park, bordered by the American Highway and Ocean Beach on the west, and Twin Peaks and the University of San Francisco on the east. It had once been a suburb, until the city expanded to include it, and many of its houses were modest, single-story family dwellings, built en masse in the 1940s and '50s. They were like the mosaics of little boxes that peppered neighborhoods across the entire country in that postwar period, but in San Francisco, where so much had been built after the quake and fire of '06, then again in the economic boom of the late twentieth century, they seemed like anachronisms from both ends of time. Charlie felt like he was driving through the Eisenhower era, at least until he passed a mother with a shaved head and tribal tattoos on her scalp pushing twins in a double stroller. Irena Posokovanovich's sister lived in a small, one-story frame house with a small covered porch that had jasmine vines growing up trellises on either side and springing off into the air like morning-after-sex hair. The rest of the tiny yard was meticulously groomed, from the holly hedge at the sidewalk to the red geraniums that lined the concrete path up to the house. Charlie parked a block away and walked to the house. On the way he was nearly run over by two different joggers, one a young mother pushing a running stroller. They couldn't see him – he was on track. Now, how to go about getting in? And then what? If he was the Luminatus, then perhaps just his presence would take care of the problem. He checked around back and saw that there was a car in the garage, but the shades were drawn on all the windows. Finally he decided on the frontal approach and rang the doorbell. A few seconds later a short woman in her seventies wearing a pink chenille housecoat opened the door. â€Å"Yes,† she said, looking a little suspicious as she eyed Charlie's walking cast. She quickly flipped the lock on the screen door. â€Å"Can I help you?† It was the woman in the picture. â€Å"Yes, ma'am, I'm looking for Irena Posokovanovich.† â€Å"Well, she's not here,† said Irena Posokovanovich. â€Å"You must have the wrong house.† She started to close the door. â€Å"Wasn't there a death notice in the paper a couple of weeks ago?† Charlie said. So far, his awesome presence as the Luminatus wasn't having much of an effect on her. â€Å"Well, yes, I believe there was,† said the woman, sensing an out. She opened the door a little more. â€Å"It was such a tragedy. We all loved Irena so much. She was the kindest, most generous, most loving, attractive – you know, for her age – well-read – â€Å" â€Å"And evidently didn't know that it's considered common courtesy when you publish a death notice to actually die!† Charlie held out the enlarged driver's-license picture. He considered adding aha! but thought that might be a little over-the-top. Irena Posokovanovich slammed the door. â€Å"I don't know who you are, but you have the wrong house,† she said through the door. â€Å"You know who I am,† Charlie said. Actually, she probably had no idea who he was. â€Å"And I know who you are, and you are supposed to have died three weeks ago.† â€Å"You're mistaken. Now go away before I call the police and tell them that there's a rapist at my door.† Charlie gagged a little, then pushed on. â€Å"I am not a rapist, Mrs. Poso†¦Posokev – I'm Death, Irena. That's who I am. And you are overdue. You need to die, this minute if possible. There's nothing to be afraid of. It's like going to sleep, only, well – â€Å" â€Å"I'm not ready,† Irena whined. â€Å"If I was ready I wouldn't have left my home. I'm not ready.† â€Å"I'm sorry, ma'am, but I have to insist.† â€Å"I'm sure you're mistaken. Perhaps another Mrs. Posokovanovich.† â€Å"No, here it is, right here in the calendar, with your address. It's you.† Charlie held his date book turned to the page with her name on it up to the little window in the door. â€Å"And you say that that is Death's calendar?† â€Å"That's correct, ma'am. Notice the date. And this is your second notice.† â€Å"And you are Death?† â€Å"That's right.† â€Å"Well, that's just silly.† â€Å"I am not silly, Mrs. Posokovanovich. I am Death.† â€Å"Aren't you supposed to have a sickle and a long black robe?† â€Å"No, we don't do that anymore. Take my word for it, I am Death.† He tried to sound really ominous. â€Å"Death is always tall in the pictures.† She was standing on tiptoe, he could tell the way she kept bouncing up by the little window to get a look at him. â€Å"You don't seem tall enough.† â€Å"There's no height requirement.† â€Å"Then could I see your business card?† â€Å"Sure.† Charlie took out a card and held it against the glass. â€Å"This says ‘Purveyor of Fine Vintage Clothing and Accessories.'† â€Å"Right! Exactly!† He knew he should have had a second set of business cards printed up. â€Å"And where do you think I get those things? From the dead. You see?† â€Å"Mr. Asher, I'm going to have to ask you to leave.† â€Å"No, ma'am, I'm going to have to insist that you pass away, this instant. You're overdue.† â€Å"Go away! You are a charlatan, and I think you need psychological help.† â€Å"Death! You're fucking with Death! Capital D, bitch!† Well, that was uncalled for. Charlie felt bad the second he said it. â€Å"Sorry,† he mumbled to the door. â€Å"I'm calling the police.† â€Å"You go ahead, Mrs. – uh – Irena. You know what they'll tell you, that you're dead! It was in the Chronicle. They hardly ever print stuff that's not true.† â€Å"Please go away. I practiced for a long time so I could live longer, it's not fair.† â€Å"What?† â€Å"Go away.† â€Å"I heard that part, I mean the part about practicing.† â€Å"Never you mind. You just go take someone else.† Charlie actually had no idea what he would do if she let him in. Maybe he had to touch her for his Death abilities to kick in. He remembered seeing an old Twilight Zone as a kid, where Robert Redford was Death, and this old lady wouldn't let him in, so he pretended to be injured, and when she came to help him†¦ALA-KAZAM! She croaked, and he peacefully led her off to Hole in the Wall, where she helped him produce independent movies. Maybe that would work. He did have the cast and the cane going for him. He looked up and down the street to make sure that no one could see him, then he lay down, half on the little porch, half on the concrete steps. He threw his cane against the door and made sure that it clattered loudly on the concrete, then he let out what he thought was a very convincing wail. â€Å"Ahhhhhhhhh, I've broken my leg.† He heard footsteps inside and saw gray hair at the little window, bouncing a little so she could see out. â€Å"Oh, it hurts,† Charlie wailed. â€Å"Help.† More steps, the shade in the window to the right of the door parted and he saw an eye. He grimaced in fake pain. â€Å"Are you all right?† said Mrs. Posokovanovich. â€Å"I need help. My leg was hurt before, but I slipped on your steps. I think I've broken something. There's blood, and a piece of bone sticking out.† He kept his leg below the level where she could see it. â€Å"Oh my,† she said. â€Å"Give me a minute.† â€Å"Help. Please. The pain. So – much – pain.† Charlie coughed the way cowboys do when they are dying in the dirt and things are getting all dark. He heard the latch being thrown, and then the inner door opened. â€Å"You're really hurt bad,† she said. â€Å"Please,† Charlie said, holding his hand out to her. â€Å"Help me.† She unlatched the screen. Charlie suppressed a grin. â€Å"Oh, thank you,† he gasped. She threw open the screen door and blasted him in the face with a stream of pepper spray. â€Å"I saw that Twilight Zone, you son of a bitch!† The doors slammed. The latch was thrown. Charlie's face felt like it was on fire. When he could finally see well enough to walk, as he limped back to his van, he heard a female voice say, â€Å"I'd have let you in, lover.† Then a chorus of spooky-girlish laughter erupted from the storm sewer. He backed against the van, ready to draw the sword from the cane, but then he heard what sounded like a small dog barking in the sewer. â€Å"Where did he come from?† said one of the harpies. â€Å"He bit me! You little fucker!† â€Å"Get him!† â€Å"I hate dogs. When we take over, no dogs.† The barking faded away, followed by the voices of the sewer harpies. Charlie took a deep breath and tried to blink the pain out of his eyes. He needed to regroup, but then he was taking the old lady down, pepper spray or not. It took him the better part of an hour to get into position, but once he was ready, he put down the cinder block, flipped open his cell phone, and dialed the number he'd gotten from information. A woman answered. â€Å"Hello.† â€Å"Ma'am, this is the gas company,† Charlie said in his best gas-company voice. â€Å"My grid is showing pressure loss at your address. We're sending a truck right out, but you need to get everyone out of the house, right now.† â€Å"Well, I'm the only one here right now, but I'm sorry, I don't smell gas.† â€Å"It may be building up under the house,† Charlie said, feeling proud of himself for being quick on his feet. Is there anyone else in the house?† â€Å"No, just me and my kitty, Samantha.† â€Å"Ma'am, please take the cat and go out by the street. Our truck will meet you there. Go right now, okay?† â€Å"Well, all right.† â€Å"Thank you, ma'am.† Charlie clicked off. He could feel movement inside of the house. He moved right to the edge of the porch roof and raised the concrete cinder block over his head. It'll look like an accident, he thought, like a cinder block fell off the porch roof. He was glad that no one could see him up here. He was sweating from the climb, his armpits stained, his trousers wrinkled. He heard the door open and got ready to throw the cinder block as soon as his target emerged from under the roof. â€Å"Good afternoon, ma'am.† A man's voice, out by the street. Charlie looked down to see Inspector Rivera standing at the sidewalk, having just climbed out of an unmarked car. What the hell was he doing here? â€Å"Are you the gas company?† said Mrs. Posokovanovich. â€Å"No, ma'am, I'm from the San Francisco police.† He flashed his badge. â€Å"They told me there was a gas leak,† she said. â€Å"That's been taken care of, ma'am. Could you step back inside and I'll check with you in a minute, okay?† â€Å"Well, okay, then.† Charlie heard the doors open and close again. His arms were trembling from holding the cinder block over his head. He tried to breathe quietly, thinking that the sound of his wheezing might attract Rivera's attention, make him visible. â€Å"Mr. Asher, what are you doing up there?† Charlie nearly lost his balance and went over. â€Å"You can see me?† â€Å"Yes, sir, I certainly can. And I can also see that cinder block you're holding over your head.† â€Å"Oh, this old thing.† â€Å"What were you planning on doing with that?† â€Å"Repairs?† Charlie tried. How could Rivera see him when he was in soul-vessel-retrieval mode? â€Å"I'm sorry, but I don't believe you, Mr. Asher. You're going to have to drop the cinder block.† â€Å"I'd rather not. It was really hard getting it up here.† â€Å"Be that as it may, I'm going to have to insist that you drop it.† â€Å"I was planning on it, but then you showed up.† â€Å"Please. Indulge me. Look, you're sweating. Climb down and you can sit in my air-conditioned car with me. We'll chat – talk about Italian suits, the Giants – I don't know – why you were about to brain that sweet old lady with a cinder block. Air-conditioning, Mr. Asher – won't that be nice?† Charlie brought the cinder block down and rested it on his thigh, feeling his trousers snagging beyond repair as he did so. â€Å"That's not much of an incentive. What am I, some primitive Amazon native? I've had air-conditioning before. I have air-conditioning in my own van.† â€Å"Yes, I'll admit it's not exactly a weekend in Paris, but the next choice was that I shoot you off the roof, and they put you in a body bag, which is going to be sweltering on a warm day like this.† â€Å"Oh, well, yes,† Charlie said. â€Å"That does make air-conditioning sound a lot more inviting. Thanks. I'm going to toss my brick down first, if that's okay?† â€Å"That would be great, Mr. Asher.† Disillusioned with DesperateFilipinas, Ray was browsing through the selection of lonely first-grade teachers with master's degrees in nuclear physics on when she came through the door. He heard the bell and caught her out of the corner of his eye, and forgetting that his neck vertebrae were fused, he sprained the left side of his face trying to turn to see her. She saw him looking and smiled. Ray smiled back, then, out of the corner of his eye, saw the monitor with the photo of the first-grade teacher holding her breasts, and sprained the right side of his face trying to turn in time to punch the power button before she passed the counter. â€Å"Just browsing,† said the love of his life. â€Å"How are you today?† â€Å"Hi,† Ray said. In his mental rehearsals, he started with â€Å"hi,† and it just sort of burped out of him before he realized that it put him behind a beat. â€Å"I mean, fine. Sorry. I was working.† â€Å"I can see that.† Again the smile. She was so understanding, forgiving – and kind, you could just tell that by her eyes. He knew in his heart that he would even sit through a hat movie for this woman. He would watch A Room with a View AND The English Patient, back-to-back, just to share a pizza with her. And she would stop him from eating his service revolver halfway through the second movie, because that's just how she was: compassionate. She made a show of browsing the store, but two minutes hadn't passed before she made for Charlie's special shelf. Even the sign said SPECIAL ITEMS – ONE PER CUSTOMER, but it didn't say if that was a per-day policy, or one per lifetime. Charlie hadn't really specified, now that Ray thought about it. Sure, Lily had yammered on about how important it was that they adhere to the policy, but that was Lily, she might have grown up some, but she was still disturbed. After a short time she picked up an electric alarm clock and brought it over to the counter. This was it. This was it. Ray heard the back door open. â€Å"Will this be everything?† he said. â€Å"Yes,† said the future Mrs. Ray Macy. â€Å"I've been looking for one like this.† â€Å"Yep, you can't beat a Sunbeam,† Ray said. â€Å"That's two-sixteen with tax – aw, heck, call it two even.† â€Å"That's very nice of you,† she said, digging into a small purse woven from colorful Guatemalan cotton thread. â€Å"Hi, Ray,† Lily said, suddenly standing there beside him like some evil phantom who appeared out of nowhere to leech every potentially joyous moment out of his life. â€Å"Hi, Lily,† he said. Lily clicked some keys on the computer. Slowed down by his freshly sprained face, Ray wasn't able to turn before she'd hit the power button on the monitor. â€Å"What's this?† asked Lily. With his free hand, Ray thumped Lily in the thigh under the counter. â€Å"Ouch! Freak!† â€Å"I'm sure you'll enjoy waking up with that,† Ray said, handing the alarm clock to the woman who would be his queen. â€Å"Thank you so much,† said the lovely brunette goddess of all things Ray. â€Å"By the way,† Ray said, pushing on, â€Å"you've been in a couple of times, I was wondering, you know, because I'm curious that way, uh, what's your name?† â€Å"Audrey.† â€Å"Hi, Audrey. I'm Ray.† â€Å"Nice to meet you, Ray. Gotta go. Bye.† She waved over her shoulder and headed out the door. Ray and Lily watched her walk away. â€Å"Nice butt,† Lily said. â€Å"She said my name,† Ray said. â€Å"She's a little bit – I don't know – unimaginary for you.† Ray turned to the nemesis Lily. â€Å"You have to watch the store. I have to go.† â€Å"Why?† â€Å"I have to follow her, find out who she is.† Ray began to gather his stuff – phone, keys, baseball cap. â€Å"Yeah, that's healthy, Ray.† â€Å"Tell Charlie I – don't tell Charlie.† â€Å"Okay. So is it okay if I switch the computer from the UGLY Web site?† â€Å"What are you talking about?† Lily stepped back from the screen and pointed to the letters as she read, â€Å"Ukrainian Girls Loving You – U-G-L-Y, ugly.† Lily smiled, a perky, self-satisfied smile, like that kid who won the spelling bee in third grade. Didn't you hate that kid? Ray couldn't believe it. They weren't even being subtle about it anymore. â€Å"Can't talk,† he said. â€Å"Gotta go.† He ran out the door and headed up Mason Street after the lovely and compassionate Audrey. Rivera had driven up to the Cliff House Restaurant overlooking Seal Rocks and forced Charlie to buy him a drink while they watched the surfers down on the beach. Rivera was not a morbid man, but he knew that if he came here enough times, eventually he'd see a surfer get hit by a white shark. In fact, he sorely hoped that it would happen, because otherwise, the world made no sense, there was no justice, and life was just a tangled ball of chaos. Thousands of seals in the water and on the rocks – the mainstay of the white shark diet – hundreds of surfers in the water, dressed like seals, well, it just needed to happen for all to be right with the world. â€Å"I never believed you, Mr. Asher, when you said that you were Death, but since I couldn't explain whatever that thing was in the alley with you, didn't want to explain, in fact, I let it slide.† â€Å"And I appreciate that,† said Charlie, showing a little discomfort at drinking a glass of wine with handcuffs on. His face was candy-apple red from having been burned by the pepper spray. â€Å"Is this normal procedure for interrogations?† â€Å"No,† Rivera said. â€Å"Normally the City is supposed to pay, but I'll have the judge take the drinks off your sentence.† â€Å"Great. Thanks,† Charlie said. â€Å"And you can call me Charlie.† â€Å"Okay, and you can call me Inspector Rivera. Now, braining the old lady with the cinder block – just exactly what were you thinking?† â€Å"Do I need a lawyer?† â€Å"Of course not, you're fine, this bar is full of witnesses.† Rivera had once been a by-the-book kind of cop. That was before the demons, the giant owls, the bankruptcy, the polar bears, the vampires, the divorce, and the saber-clawed woman-thing that turned into a bird. Now, not so much. â€Å"In that case, I was thinking that no one could see me,† Charlie said. â€Å"Because you were invisible?† â€Å"Not really. Just sort of not noticeable.† â€Å"Well, I'll give you that, but I don't think that's any reason to crush a grandmother's skull.† â€Å"You have no proof of that,† Charlie said. â€Å"Of course I do,† Rivera said, holding up his glass to signal to the waitress that he needed another Glenfiddich on the rocks. â€Å"I saw pictures of her grandchildren, she showed me when I went in the house.† â€Å"No, I mean you have no proof that I was going to crush her skull.† â€Å"I see,† said Rivera, who did not see at all. â€Å"How did you know Mrs. Posokovanovich?† â€Å"I didn't. Her name just showed up in my date book, like I showed you.† â€Å"Yes, you did. Yes, you did. But that doesn't really give you a license to kill her, now does it?† â€Å"That's the point, she was supposed to be dead three weeks ago. There was even a death notice in the paper. I was just trying to make sure it was accurate.† â€Å"So in lieu of having the Chronicle print a correction, you thought you'd bash in granny's brains.† â€Å"Well, it was that or have my daughter say ‘kitty' at her, and I refuse to exploit my child in that way.† â€Å"Well, I admire your taking the high ground on that one, Charlie,† Rivera said, thinking, Who do I have to shoot to get a drink around here? â€Å"But let's just say that for one millisecond I believe you, and the old lady was supposed to die, but didn't, and that because of it you were shot with a crossbow and that thing I shot in the alley appeared – let's just say I believe all that, what am I supposed to do about it?† â€Å"You need to be careful,† Charlie said. â€Å"You may be turning into one of us.† â€Å"Pardon?† â€Å"That's how it happened to me. When my wife passed away, in the hospital, I saw the guy that came to collect her soul vessel, and wham, I was a Death Merchant. You saw me today, when no one else could, and you saw the sewer harpy, that night in the alley. Most of the time, I'm the only one who can see them.† Rivera really, really wanted to turn this guy over to a psychiatrist at the hospital and never see him again, but the problem was, he had seen the woman-thing, that night and another time on his own street, and he had seen reports of weird stuff happening in the City over the last two weeks. And not just normal San Francisco weird stuff, but really weird stuff, like a flock of ravens attacking a tourist in Coit Tower, and a guy who slammed his car through a storefront in Chinatown, saying that he had swerved to miss a dragon, and people all over the Mission saying that they'd seen an iguana dressed like a musketeer going through their garbage, tiny sword and all. â€Å"I can prove it,† Charlie said. â€Å"Just take me to the music store in the Castro.† Rivera looked at the sad, naked ice cubes in his glass and said, â€Å"Anyone ever tell you that it's hard to follow your train of thought, Charlie?† â€Å"You need to talk to Minty Fresh.† â€Å"Of course, that clears things up. I'll have a word with Krispy Kreme while I'm there.† â€Å"He's also a Death Merchant. He can tell you that what I'm telling you is true and you can let me go.† â€Å"Get up.† Rivera stood. â€Å"I'm not finished with my wine.† â€Å"Leave the money for the drinks and get up, please.† Rivera hooked his finger in Charlie's handcuffs and pulled him up. â€Å"We're going to the Castro.† â€Å"I don't think I can work my cane with these things on,† Charlie said. Rivera sighed and looked down on the surfers. He thought he saw something large moving in a wave behind one surfer, but as his heart leapt at the prospect, a sea lion poked his whiskered face out of the curl and Rivera's spirits sank again. He threw Charlie the handcuff keys. â€Å"Meet me in the car, I have to take a leak.† â€Å"I could escape.† â€Å"You do that, Charlie – after you pay.†

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Political Issues - The Congress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Political Issues - The Congress - Essay Example The member of Congress holds forums with the constituents while at home. The member also likes to appear as if they are one of the constituents. He achieves this through putting on the local attire, talking in a casual manner, and answering the questions in a way that will leave the constituents attracted to him. Moreover, he uses this forum to listen to the grievances of the people on the ground and issues that they would like the member to address once he gets into Capitol Hill. Hill style is significant in fulfilling the election promises. It is the style of which a member represents his district. This can be achieved through voicing a support to projects that are of great significance to the constituents. In addition, a member can request more funds to support stalled projects in the district. Hill style focuses mainly on bringing money back home. In addition, it includes voicing the support of the home people, businesses, and sports team in order to attract investment and increa se the focus on the area. Through the hill style, the constituents are able to fell well represented, an aspect that leads to the reelection of the member. One of the major problems facing the Congress is the increasing number of unemployed people in the country. The economy is growing slowly and people are optimistic that is heading in the right direction. However, ballooning debt is likely to affect the policies that are meant to create more jobs for the young people who are being released from the institutions of higher learning.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Difficult Patients and History Patients Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Difficult Patients and History Patients - Essay Example This lesson will teach students some strategies for dealing with patients who are unwilling or unable to cooperate when giving a family history. Furthermore, this lesson can include a swath of transferable skills that will be useful in other areas, thus providing a much greater benefit than its narrow focus would seem to suggest. However, the most important reason for this might be that this kind of lesson can force a nurse to be critical of the role that informal theory plays in their practice towards patients, to gain confidence as creators of informal theory, and to understand the interaction between formal and informal theory. Section 2: Learner outcomes for the lesson & Learning Objectives This experience will have several general learning outcomes a) allow nurses to be more proficient in such skills when they first experience them in a clinical setting b) give nurses an approximation of the kinds of experiences they could have c) provide transferable skills for patient interact ion for a variety of other situations that are not directly covered in and d) understand their role in forming informal theory, and the relationship between formal theory and informal theory. ... leave with a greater understanding for the real-world situation of patient interaction, a greater degree of comfort in dealing with issues that may arise, and a closer relationship with their classmates, hopefully furthering future learning outcomes. Learner Characteristics Nurses who have already achieved some knowledge of patient history. The goal of this lesson is not for nurses to take a history: they should already know this skill so that they will not have to focus on it throughout the lesson. Rather, they should have enough experience that taking a history will be second nature, and so they can focus on techniques of patient interaction that they employ. Learning Theory While nursing often uses the see one, do one, teach one model, this will differ significantly and focus rather on the development of difficult to define skills and subjective experiences though one-on-one interaction with fellow students. Based on self-authorship theory, this will attempt to both allow nurses t o develop their own skills and techniques that will work for them, hear widely used techniques (as provided by instructors) and techniques developed and used by peers, with the goal of critiquing each technique given. This will allow a great deal of exposure to different ideas without dictating what the right thing to do in a situation. This will hopefully allow nurses to acknowledge their role in developing theories of practice every time they interact with a patient, and note that they have and can develop authority as knowledge creators based on their personal experiences in patient interactions. Instructional methods used for delivery This lesson will rely heavily on role-playing, allowing the students to develop experience, try out different techniques, and form their own conclusion

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Importance of technology in business (Radio frequency identification Assignment

Importance of technology in business (Radio frequency identification (RFID) - Assignment Example Due to its potential advantages such as no requirement of line of sight scanning (direct contact), RFID is increasingly being used by many organizations as an alternative to the bar code technology. RFID methods employ radio waves to automatically recognize and capture data pertaining to objects. An RFID system constitutes three parts: an RFID tag, an antenna and an RFID reader. RFID tags constitute an integrated circuit plus the antennae, charged with the duty to transmit data to a RFID reader (Li, Rida & Tentzeris, 2009). The reader then transforms the radio waves to a data form that is more useful. Closely following is the use of a given communications interface to transmit data the information gathered from the tags to the host computer system. The gathered data resides in a database system associated with this computer system whilst awaiting analysis. RFID was mainly intended to address the inefficiency that was associated with the barcode reader. Basically, the optical nature of the bar code has often required that the lasers see the labels associated with objects. The line of sight between the label on an object and the reader has often between impractical, difficult and at times impossible to attain in the industrial context (Tyler, 2007). Proper functioning of the bar code reader has always required that the object label and the reader are placed in positions that are relative to each other in addition to clean labels that are deprived of abrasion. Uckelmann (2012) asserts that clerks charged with store check outs have often had difficulty in making sure that a bar code reader is able to read the bar code associated with a given product. RFID device provides a tracking approach where the position of the product to be tracked does not have to be relative to that of the scanner. Using RFID, a client inside a supermarket could p lace his items in a basket then set the entire bag on the scanner. The scanner

Monday, August 26, 2019

Ratios Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ratios - Essay Example The ratio analysis will consist of a combination of ratios from three categories. The three ratio categories are profitability, efficiency, and leverage ratios. Three profitability ratios selected for the analysis are net margin, return on equity (ROE), and return on sales (ROA). The three efficiency ratios used in the ratio analysis are sales to inventory, assets to sales, and sales to net working capital ratio. The two leverage ratios selected were debt ratio and the current ratio. Appendix A shows the ratio calculations results for Target in 2009 and 2008 and for comparison purposes the ratios of Costco in 2010. The net margin shows the profitability of the firm by dividing net income by sales. High net margins are a desirable outcome. The return on equity shows how much profits are being created in relation to its equity investment. The return of assets shows how much of a return a company is obtaining from its assets. High ROA and ROE are desirable outcomes. The sales to invento ry ratio shows how well your inventory is producing sales. The asset to sale ratio shows the ability of the assets to generate revenue. The sale to working capital ratio is calculated dividing sales by net working capital. In fiscal year 2009 which ended on January 30, 2010 Target generated revenues of $63435 million (Annual Report: Tesco, 2009). This figure represents an increase in revenues of 0.88%. In 2009 Target had a net margin of 3.92%. The firm was able to increase its overall profitability by 0.40% in comparison with 2008. In order to compare the ratios of the company with a competitor we choose Cotsco. The most recent financial statements of Cotsco were released in fiscal year 2010 which ends on August 29, 2010. The net margin of Cotsco in fiscal year 2010 was 1.67% (Annual Report: Cotsco, 2010). The net margin of Target is better than Cotsco by 2.25%. The return on assets of Target in 2009 was 5.14%. This metric improved by 0.12% in comparison with the previous fiscal yea r. The return on assets of Target is inferior to Costco by 0.33%.The return on equity of Target in 2009 was 16.21%. The ROE of Target is superior to Cotsco by 4.29%. The sale to inventory ratio of Target in 2009 was 8.84. The financial metric was reduced by 0.54. The sale to inventory of Cotsco in 2010 was 13.83. Cotsco had a superior sale to inventory efficiency by 4.99. The asset to sale ratio of Target in 2009 was 0.70. Cotsco had assets to sales ratio of 0.31. The asset to sales ratio of Target was superior by 0.39. The sale to working capital ratio of Target in 2009 was 8.93. The sale to working capital ratio of Cotsco was much better at 47.38. The metric of Cotsco was superior by 38.45. The debt ratio of Target in 2009 was 1.53. Due to the fact that the company has a debt ratio above 1.0 it is in a favorable position to pay off its long term debt. The debt ratio of Cotsco was better at 1.85. The current ratio of Target in 2009 was 1.63 which is 0.03 better than in 2008. The fi rm is a good position to pay off its short term debt because the current ratio is above 1.0. The current ratio of Target is better than Cotsco by 0.47. The operating expenses of Target in 2009 were $13,078 million which represents an increase in operating expenses of 0.42%. The financial ratio analysis performed on Target led me to believe that Target is a good acquisition for the company. Target had excellent revenues and profitability numbers. The 3.92% net margin of the firm is better

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Research Paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Assignment - Research Paper Example Therefore, arguments that Information technology has lost its strategic value are baseless. According to Carr, companies were investing too much of their resources on IT (Carr, 2003). He therefore argued that it’s the high time that they turn their focus on risks rather than competitive advantage. However, this is not the case. After the entry of information technology, there was a boom as each company wanted to align itself effectively in the market. At the same time, globalization intensified as a result of liberalization of markets, efficient flow of information, and integration of economies. Consequently, companies were expanding their markets and operations in order to expand their sources of revenues. Therefore, they needed the necessary IT to enable them to monitor and manage various operations by the subsidiaries. This increased the demand. However, over the years, companies have reduced their spending on IT and have now focused on improving the existing infrastructure. Therefore, it is not right to argue that the value of information technology has diminish ed. On the contrary, new firms still invest heavily on IT. Nevertheless, with time they reduced this spending spree and focus on training and equipping their subordinates with the necessary skills to enable them maximize the returns through the use of IT. Carr argues that the greatest IT risk is overspending (Carr, 2003). He states that this puts the company at a cost disadvantage. However, this is not the case with the changes being experienced in the market. Initially, there were only few firms in the market. However, with the increasing levels of liberalization, multinational companies have entered different markets across the world in order to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with concentrating on a single market. Research indicates that these companies

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Treatment of Autism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Treatment of Autism - Research Paper Example According to Jill Boucher, autism could have existed in human populations since the start (4). However it was not until the mid 19th century when it was recognized as a distinct disorder when Leo Kanner published a scientific paper titled ‘Autistic disturbances of affective contact’ and subsequently another paper by Hans Asperger on the same subject was published (Boucher, 4). People with severe autism were described as â€Å"simpletons†, â€Å"imbeciles† or â€Å"feeble-minded† (Boucher, 4). Those with mild autism or Asperger syndrome were considered withdrawn. The autism spectrum syndromes consist of Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) (Boucher, 5). Currently, there is no single known cause for autism, however, a collection of factors including – genetic, environmental, and induced causes – are thought to contribute towards autism in children (Mayo Clinic, n.pag.). This paper will aim to creat e a distinction between fact and speculation regarding the causes that are real and those that are not. With the absence of a definitive etiology of the disorder, various theories have been presented that explain the relationship between autism and other factors. Genes are considered to be one causal factor contributing towards autism among children. The involvement of genetics as a causal factor was first made by Kanner in his original documentation of the disorder. In his work, Kanner suggested the involvement of parents in passing it on to children however he strongly proposed the involvement of one’s physiological defects (Schreibman, 90). It took many years before the genetic etiological link was explored and established.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Steel sector analysis within the EU Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Steel sector analysis within the EU - Essay Example d the steel sector of the European Union in an adverse manner and presently, the industry is under significant stress in areas relating to reduction in the demand for steel, rise of emerging countries as industrial powerhouse and rising instances of high unemployment. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the European business environment on the steel sector of the country. The idea is to find the factors that are causing challenges for the industry and the ways in which these problems can be resolved. The steel companies in Europe have been primarily under the control of the government in the 80’s. The situation had rapidly changed from 1988-1998 when most of the steel companies were sold to the private sector enterprises. The productivity of the companies had increased rapidly and profitably began to show improvement slowly. Only a fraction of the steel companies remained under the government and the major steel companies sold to the private sector were given full liberty to expand across the national borders. The previous decade has been largely characterized by mergers and acquisitions. European steel companies has been able to create strong profits which had lured number of steel companies from the Asian countries to export steel to Europe, particularly when production was slack in their countries. Further mergers and acquisitions had taken place from 2004 (Wubs, 2008). The following table shows some of the key companies and the output produced from them. The present state of challenges of the steel sector in the European steel sector comes from both internal and external environment. The internal issues arise from the slow recovery of the European economy after the financial crisis and the external issues arise from certain actions that are taken by the trading partners and the policies of the government. The European Union has always maintained very high environmental standards and has constantly committed itself to the reduction of the

3.3 Financial Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

3.3 Financial Analysis - Assignment Example ould likely result in liabilities hence previous trends and records of the organization can be used to assess the profitability of an organization as an investment opportunity (Ou & Penman 2009, pp.295–329). To understand the significance of the financial well-being of an organization, this paper will conduct a financial analysis of Chateau hotel redoubtable as an investment opportunity for the Smithsons. The core objective of investing in a business is to get a return for the price invested. Inferring to the statement of the financial position of the hotel basing on the analysis of two years (year ended December 30 2013 and 2014), the hotel made an improvement in the value of the total assets from â‚ ¬3,263, 000 to â‚ ¬3,881, 000. Additionally, the company made an improvement in the equity shares from 800 shares to 1000 shares with each of the share selling at â‚ ¬100. However, the company has an outstanding long-term loans and current liabilities with inclusion of the bank overdraft, payable dividend, taxation owing deposit by customers and payable-trade creditors cumulatively summing to â‚ ¬3,263, 000 for the financial year ended 2013 and â‚ ¬3,881, 000 for the financial year ended 2014. This implies that a liquidation of the assets of the company would be sufficient to settle the liabilities of the company without outstanding profit. However, inferring to the income statement of the company, it is evident that the rental income of the hotel had declined from â‚ ¬505, 000 in the year 2013 to â‚ ¬448, 000 in the year ended 2014. Analysis of the financial figures of the hotel indicates that the hotel is currently running at diminishing returns, which makes the chances for solvency and the resale of the company to be difficult. Equally, owing to the declining financial position of Chateau hotel redoubtable, the hotel is not profitable thus; investment in the hotel would demand a change in the strategy in the manner with which it is operated to realize profit.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Environmental economics Essay Example for Free

Environmental economics Essay It is a familiar characteristic of city life; it is a type of large scale outdoor pollution. It consists of fog grossly contaminated by the product of the inefficient combustion of coal. Chemical reaction between pollutants derived from different sources primarily automobile exhaust and industrial emissions. For each city that exact causes of pollution may be different, depending on the geographical location, temperature, wind and weather factors, smog in its acute form occurs especially during the warm months of the year. Notable, air pollution disaster of this kind was recorded in December 1952 where London smog lasted in the acute stage for five days and overall for ten days. Casualties were among cattle and opera performance had to be stopped after the audience had no vision of the stage. More seriously though, it was estimated to have been directly responsible for an additional four thousand deaths. Specify the externalities/factors that have made this problem and the extent of the externalities involved, the impact and recent trends. In pure market economy resource allocation is the result of the decisions of consumers (households) and producers (firms) who seek to maximize the difference between benefit and incurred costs i. e. private benefit and private cost. But in the weakness of the market economy is that it may fail to take account of any additional benefit or cost which spill over from the original decisions. The cost or benefits additional to those which are the immediate concerns of the parties to a transaction are the spill-overs or externalities, they are not provided for directly in the market place. Due to activities of individuals or firms human based or naturally pollution occurs as a result of emitting too much of a substance to the environment so as to have harmful effects. Every time we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals present in the atmosphere. These dangerous chemicals can be either in form of gases or particles and have diverse and numerous effects on human beings and the natural ecosystems. Because it is located in the atmosphere, air pollution is able to travel easily therefore making it a global problem and to a subject of cooperation and conflict. Emission of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, lead, suspended particulates and organic compounds that can evaporate and enter the atmosphere. Air pollution caused naturally includes forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds and natural radio activity. This does not occur in abundance in particular locations. Most pollution is as a result of human activity. The biggest causes are the operation of fossil fuel: burning power plants and automobiles that combust fuel. These few factors are responsible for up to 90% of all air pollution in the United States alone. Other cities like Japan, China, Mexico and San Paulo have some of the most deadly pollution emission levels in the world. The world we are in is driven by fossil fuels, cars and other forms of transportation i. e. tracks, trains, aeroplanes e. t. c. run primarily on gasoline derived from oil. We can therefore say that some of the pollution issues that we face currently are directly related to the energy choice we have. Cooking, heating, lighting, e. . c. for homes, work places, industries using oil, coal and natural gas making us prone to pollution. Solutions to this problem begin with the logic of cost. This is where issues of renewable energy alternatives are suggested but corresponding arguments of greater energy efficiency and reliance on renewable energy is also advocated for. Some notable air pollution disasters are for example: the most publicized issues of second hand smoking. The smokers not only harm themselves but also others close by when they breathe this smoke. Industrial emissions did contribute to respiratory symptoms for several individuals and sixty deaths in Meuse area of Belgium in December 1930. In Danara, Pennsylvania, October 1948, twenty people died as a result of smog. This is a recurring problem that has seen world population mortality rate go up, low life expectancy e. t. c, this is due to diseases present in modern society and were not present 100 years go. Define using examples how policies to reduce this problem could be measured. Benefit management Policies set out to restrict smoking are important in attaining a healthy environment and individual. Policies to regulate smoking are in effect in some locations, but personal exposure should be motivated and limited wherever possible. However a combination of scientist, legislators, business leaders and individuals is a prerequisite for adherence and advocacy with a view to achieving a better environment. In this case therefore second hand smokers are protected especially in public places, this has therefore resulted to a decline in lung cancer, respiratory cases which would have cost the government and the unsuspecting persons a lot of money for treatment. On realizing the catastrophic effect of pollution and the environmental and personal costs associated with it, monitoring the air and environment campaign lead to: (i) Education in schools and universities where students begin at a very young age learning about the effects of pollution. They are taught and trained on management and conservation which carries in handy in the proceeding years of their life. (ii) Scientific groups have also been formulated as a result of government policies. These aim to study the environment with a view of coming up with solutions of encroaching problems and finding lasting and workable solutions (iii) legislative bodes have also contributed enormously by writing down laws that control emission. In this case therefore persons found violating the set laws is liable for prosecution. This makes industries oblige to avoid pollution and consequently revert to better and safer methods of production. (iv) Policies have also enabled the setting up of regulatory agencies e. g. united nations, the atmosphere management program to carry out environmental projects. They are bale to monitor, advocate and control the environment. These and much more are examples on policy formulated for better management and monitoring of the environment. As a result therefore emission of waste to minimized, controlled and checked. Dumping, waste disposal and waste management is carried out in a better way and thus reducing pollution levels. We also see that health cases and deaths are minimized, the government and individuals end up spending less for treatment in pollution related illnesses. The scenarios and beauty of landscapes, plants, etc is also retained. Measuring the cost of reducing the problem In conducting environmental sound economic analysis, we are required to determine the environmental and natural resource impact of the project or policy in question. In this case therefore it is the smog effect. It should also handle biological and social effects. One needs to measure the impact to determine the cost of solving it and this relies on the experts such as engineers, ecologists, agronomists, etc. We also put into consideration valuing the physical impact and relationship. Environmental impact can result in a miserable change in environmental quality. Estimating cost is generally easier than estimating benefits but it is not easy. One major problem derived from the fact that benefit cost analysis is forward looking and thus requires an estimate of what a particular strategy will cost which is more difficult than tracking down what an existing strategy does cost. Another fundamental problem disposed by collecting cost information when the availability of the information is controlled by a firm having an interest in the outcome.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Analysis of Australia and New Zealand Sustainability

Analysis of Australia and New Zealand Sustainability In the recent years, following increasing societal urges for responsible practices, involvement of the community, accountability, demand for more transparency, better working standards, contained GHGs emissions, and multiple other environmental and social elements (Ioannis Ioannou and George Serafeim, 2014, p.1) has given rise to a growing demand from stakeholders for corporate organisations to produce sustainable reports. Sustainable reporting as stated in the GRI 101: foundation is an organizations practice of reporting publicly on its economic, environmental, and/or social impacts, and hence its contributions positive or negative towards the goal of sustainable development (2016, p. 3). This report aims at evaluating various sustainability reporting tools and assess their impacts within the Australian context. Sustainability framework can be described as a set of guidelines put together to assist organisations producing a sustainability report with emphasis on a businesss material aspects, while focusing on the selection of the boundaries of the report. Above all, the framework highlights transparent reporting writing formats by providing technically-reviewed content and disclosure requirements (A GRI report is, 2017). These frameworks usually instigate a synoptic awareness risks and environmental impacts as well as opportunities/innovations. They additionally push for transparency regarding management strategies and quantifiable actions. They are astute about targeting areas that will have consequential impacts that ultimately translate to value for stakeholders (Some 227 members, 2016) For the purpose of this essay, the 2016 sustainability report of The Australian and New Zealand Banking Group has been studied. The report has been generated with the aid of various sustainability frameworks, however there are three major frameworks which are being considered namely DJSI (Dow Jones Sustainability Index), CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project) and GRI (Global Reporting Initiative). The DJSI is a widely used sustainability framework which has some of the most advanced ESG index solutions put at the disposal to the asset management industry through an unprecedented set of criteria for gathering, analyzing, quantifying, and distributing ESG data. It basically consists of industries specific questionnaires featuring 80-120 questions aligned with the companies financially relevant economic, environmental and social factors that accompanies the conventional financial analysis. A major part of the corporate sustainability assessment is the Media and Stakeholder Analysis (MSA) which audits publicly available information and assesses whether the companies management systems are translating into performance (The RobecoSAM Corporate, 2016). The CDP framework is a tool for decision makers for them to capitalize on opportunities and manage risks via their environmental performances (We understand that, 2017).The CDP overlaps with other framework in terms of its approach through sending out questionnaires to businesses in the denomination of the investors backing the initiative, the Carbon Disclosure Project amasses information on the companies environmental activities such as the monitoring and reduction of carbon emissions. This information accommodates the investors to make apprised, climate risk-related decisions in their investment process. Predicated on the data it has amassed, the CDP withal publishes in-depth analyses on sundry environmental subjects every year, covering a wide range of geographical regions (Samuel O. Idowu, 2013) The GRI Reporting Framework is meant to be a framework accepted by all organization for reporting on their economic, environmental, and social performance, regardless their size, sector, or location. It takes into consideration the practical issues faced by various organizations ranging ones having local operations to ones dispersing their operations internationally. The GRI Reporting Framework contains general as well as sector-specific content that has been agreed by multitude of stakeholders globally to be applied generally for reporting an organizations sustainability performance. The Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, now standards in the GRI are made up of principles for which define report content and ensure the quality of reported information. It also includes Standard Disclosures consisting of Performance Indicators and other disclosure items and guidance on specific technical topics in reporting (Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, 2016, p.3). CDP provides a framework for firms to measure and disclose their Greenhouse Gas (GHG), water, and supply chain performance. While the prime objective of CDP is climate change mitigation and protection of natural resources. GRI and DJSI, on the other hand, focus on the economic, environmental, and social impact of an organizations material activities on its stakeholders. The CDP and GRI frameworks are available to the public but for data to be submitted to DJSI, companies must be invited and the results of the analysis are not available in the public domain. (Mark Sellberg, 25 Nov 2015) These frameworks also target different audiences. While CDP and DJSI target investors as their main audience. The GRI reports primary stakeholder are based upon the material issues for the company and typically include shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, regulators, NGOs, and local communities. In Australia sustainability reporting is voluntary. Companies choosing to do so in order to inform non-shareholder stakeholders about the companys performance with regards to the three main pillars of sustainability and setting up strategies for improve their impacts while disclosing to all stakeholders how a company is dealing with material non-financial and financial risks. According to Certified Practicing Accountants Australias (CPA Australia) 2004-2007 report Sustainability, Practice, Performance and Potential, there exists a strong correlation relating sustainability reporting and low probability of corporate distress. This relationship may also indicate the producing sustainability reports are proactive versus more prominent risks to their business and can prepare long term and integrated approach to risk benefitting both shareholders and stakeholders To address the diverse needs of Australias business community, one prime principle of sustainability was identified to be flexibility so that listed entities could first consider and then disclose sustainability or non-financial information that is pertinent to the (Ian Matheson, 2012, p.2) The ASX Corporate Governance Councils Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Best Practice Recommendations views are that if the size, structure and operations of organisations differ hence flexibility must be allowed in the structures adopted to maximise individual performance. Even though, flexibility is granted, organisations should be accountable to investors for their alternative which is the if not, why not obligation. On the other hand, multiple submitters believe that there is a need for compulsory sustainability disclosures provide stakeholders with assurance that companies are doing business accountably and transparently so that players who currently ignore CSR come up to the standard, even if it is a minimum, as it will provide authorities something against which they can hold them to account. (Rod Masson, 2012, p.42) Finally, in that sense it can be seen from the ANZ banking group sustainability report that the organization has chosen a combination of sustainability framework so as to meet answer the expectations of their different stakeholders and at the same time identify areas to improve their operational or management activities, find better managerial strategies for their non-financial risks, find new markets or business opportunities and measure their performance against their competitors. (ANZ, Corporate Sustainability Review 2016)

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Problem Of Evil By John Hick | Analaysis

The Problem Of Evil By John Hick | Analaysis In this final paper I review the contemporary issue The Problem of Evil by John Hick on pages 143 to 147 of the Burr Goldfinger text. Hick has four main points in his article. First, that within the Christian doctrine there is no dilemma concern the existence of Evil because Second, the concept of Evil is necessary for the measuring of actions so that Third, human souls can choose to move nearer or farther from God, meaning that Fourth, our existence and world is a type of soul factory measuring and creating souls that are worthy to the presence of God. Some quick internet searches on John Hick reveals that he is a very well respected and prolific writer on the topic of God, Philosophy, Theology, and the relationship of Religion and Science (http://www.johnhick.org.uk/jsite/). Further he has several advanced degrees from some very prestigious universities to include a doctorate of philosophy from Oxford University and a doctorate in literature (or Letters it is not clear) from the University of Edinburgh. Hicks clear writing style and excellent arguments have clearly earned him a place of prominence within high academic circles. This article is in the section concerning God Religion. What is especially interesting, and suggests the overall quality of the thinking, is that Hick is able to turn the tables on an argument that at one time seemed to put a nail in the coffin of theology. Until reading this article, I did struggle with the dilemma of Evil against the existence of God. At first blush and even with some deeper inquiry they do seem to be at odds. These are reasonable questions: If God is all powerful and all good, why does Evil exist? Why do bad things happen to good people? And so on. Through a well thought out argument Hick addresses this, and further suggests, cleverly being able to stay within the theology and thinking of Christian doctrine, that a creator God given the goals and temperament of the Christian God, would see Evil as a necessary requirement for a world designed to create souls worthy of His presence. Summary of Article Hick has written an extensive essay outlining a philosophical argument suggesting that it is not a contradiction to believe in a Christian version of God while still acknowledging the existence of Evil in its many forms. The dilemma he is arguing against is the idea that a perfectly loving creator God would not allow, or would abolish Evil from his created world. Since we can see that Evil clearly exists, it is reasonable to assume that either there is no creator God, God is not Omni-powerful, or God must not be perfectly loving (Goldinger and Burr 143). Hick goes on to summarize Augustine, who defined Evil as a distortion of something valuable; a movement away from God by humans (Goldinger and Burr 144). This is an important distinction because it suggests that Christian doctrine does not dismiss Evil, but identifies it as having meaning and purpose within the realm created by God. It identifies direction of the soul against actions, where good actions move a soul closer to God and evil actions move a soul farther away from God. Further, Hick summarizes the Christian viewpoint of the creation of the earth not of an absolute paradise created by God for his human creations to dwell in, but as a soul factory creating believers and preparing souls to enter the presence of God (Goldinger and Burr 146). To this end, Hick suggests that a perfect world would neither serve as a vehicle to produce souls worthy of Heaven, nor be a consistent and logical place for free-willed humans to dwell. Too much inconsistency would be necessary, for example should someone fall from a height that would break their back, gravity would have to change characteristics such that the fall would not hurt them, less they suffer the pain of the injury, and so on, several of these types of analogys are offered. He further offers that without Evil there would be no measuring stick to understand good and Just actions. To that end Hick summarizes his argument by saying that the existence of Evil fits perfectly into a theological model that accepts both free will, and the ability to measure a persons soul against the actions and choices they make, where worthy souls choose good actions that move them closer to God and unworthy souls choose actions that are Evil and move then away from God. Philosophical Critique As pure philosophy goes this article is actually one of the best explanations I have ever read concerning the problem of evil within a Christian theological framework. Its underlying premise is that our world as created by God is a type of soul factory, and when viewed as such can only make logical sense is real choices can be made by us, many with the consequence of evil and harm to others. Further, within these context natural disasters that bring evil upon people is necessary, for without itself sacrifice, heroism, and true goodwill could not be attempted or offered by people, thus denying any true measurement or preparedness of the human soul to be in the presence of God. Without evil human souls would not be able to learn from their actions, observe the actions of others, and make choices that allow them to either move nearer or farther from God. If the world we created such that any choice we made could never bring evil on another, and never provide a consequence to the choice we make, our souls would never develop beyond that of spoiled children. Touch choices and touch consequences are necessary in a world designed as a proving ground for the soul. Further, without the necessary context of evil we would not be able to contemplate the true divinity of God nor of our own existence. There would be no reason to attempt any endeavor or any type beyond pure self-gratification. Since evil is necessary for the measuring of our actions within the constructs of the world as a soul factory, the reality of Evil is necessary for a creator God looking to produce real creations, and not simple automatons that are capable of evolving into something more. All of this does not justify evil actions, or provide any type of moral platform for anyone to justify an evil action, it simply provides necessary context for us to understand the reasons for our choices and why it is important to make choices that move us closer to God. What is especially interesting about this argument is that it turns the dilemma concern the existence of Evil and the existence of God on its ear, and takes an argument that at one time was believed and held onto by anti-Christians as an absolute proof against the existence of God, and makes it a pretty good argument FOR the existence of God. Not only does it dispel the dilemma, it builds on it in a very interesting way and argues that no real creator God would even consider designing a world without evil, given the other theological elements of Christianity. Conclusion Upon reviewing the arguments presented in The Problem of Evil by John Hick on pages 143 to 147 of the Burr Goldfinger text and Hicks has four main points, you discover a very well thought out and logical philosophical argument that seems to hold in both logical construct and keep its underlying assumption valid within the necessary area of Christian doctrine. The idea that God created the world as a soul factory is supported by the concept of freewill and choice, and the measurement of choice within a reality with real choices and real consequences. Upon close examination this is not a dilemma concerning the existence and nature of God, but a reassurance that Christianity is in fact based upon a rational view of the world and that it can be defended using logic and sound reason. This article interested me very much and I will be going out and purchasing some other books by Hick to see if he is able to put together complete tombs that are as well thought out and as interesting as this article was. Given that he has published over 20 books and given his academic appointments, I suspect I am in for a fun bit of reading.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Henry VII & Richard III :: European Europe History

Henry VII & Richard III Richard the Third had just recently become King of England. But he did not know that soon he would not Henry Tudor was from Wales. His surname was really spelt 'Tewdwr.' It was changed to the English way though when he became King of England. Henry was too to France by his Uncle Jasper in 1471, fourteen years before the Battle of Bosworth. His uncle took him to Brittany. There, Henry learnt a lot. He learnt about warfare, treachery and betrayal. He also learned about court politics and how to keep supporters. This helped Henry very much with the Battle of Bosworth. Henry landed at Milford haven in South Wales. He had about two thousand soldiers with him. He marched all through Wales and the Midlands. When he got to the battle site he had around five thousand troops. He had gained more than three thousand on his journey. The battle was fought up on a hill at Bosworth. At the battle site there was a third army. It was small and led by Lord William Stanley. It did not know what side to join. Henry started the battle by moving up the hill and charging at Richard. Stanley decided which side to join. It would be Henry's. He hit on the rear of Richards army causing the Kings forces to run. Richard fell from his horse in the rush and was eventually killed. As the battle ended, Stanley found the Kings crown hanging on a thorn bush. Lord Stanley crowned Henry the King of England. Henry then married Edward the IV'S daughter Elizabeth. This united both of the families together. The battle of Bosworth wasn't any old battle. It was very important in history. The Lancastrian, Henry Tudor defeated the Yorkist, Richard the third at the battle of Bosworth field in 1485 and became King

Sunday, August 18, 2019

War in Iraq Essay -- Operation Iraqi Freedom

The war against Iraq began on March 20, 2002, when the U.S lunched â€Å"Operation Iraqi Freedom†. This was after President Bush called Iraq part of an â€Å"axis of evil†, also calling the country dangerous which is threatening U.S with the world’s most destructive weapons. The major phase of the war began when U.S troops marched within 50 miles of Baghdad with heavy aerial attacks on Baghdad and other cities. After the attack on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon which was believed to be the work of Al Qaeda, U.S was concerned about the security of the Untied States which lead to the war in Iraq. Even though U.S officials felt the war in Iraq is the main priority, but many people in U.S opposes the war which brings up a lot of controversial issues. Some people feel that lives of troops are put on risk for unnecessary reason, and people are also concerned about the innocent civilians getting killed in Iraq. Also billions of tax payer’s dollars are spent on the war which could be used for other major issues within our country such as poverty, education and security. I feel that declaring war with Iraq was unnecessary and that there are many other ways to resolve this conflict. As the war progressed many people were questioning President Bush’s decision to declare war in Iraq because U.S intelligence believes Iraq has weapons of mass distraction, I never agreed with the decision, and I always felt that the money and the effort should be used to catch Osama Bin Laden, who was the man, ...

Graffiti as an Artform Essay -- Visual Art Artists Graffiti Spray Pain

Graffiti as an Artform The value of any message or work of art, whether it is hanging on the wall of a gallery or a subway, lies on the intensity of the artist’s or vandal’s beliefs. Graffiti is an uncertain issue in respect to its virtue. While the voice of the individual must never be lost in a society of shouts growing larger and louder every second; graffiti is such a public medium that its integrity must be of great concern. Graffiti is a vast wasteland of indefinite opinions. Foremost graffiti is illegal and a form of vandalism, it invades peoples privacy and destroys their property. However, graffiti can be a means by which one may permanently express one’s self. It has the potential to convey a powerful, relevant message. Therefore the merit of graffiti is dependant on the circumstances present, how it affects society, and the purpose for which it is created. Graffiti serves several different purposes; it is a marker serving as proof of identity for some individuals, for others it is a form of vulgar recreation. The wall of one building may serve as a public record, a confessional and an art gallery at the same time. The most dejected application of graffiti is illustrated in the story of a High School student, Katy Lyle, who was emotionally traumatized by the presence of disgraceful, fictional writing transcribed on the wall of the boy’s bathroom pertaining to her sex life. This case clearly shows the damaging effects of graffiti as the crude remarks ripped her social life apart. The writing was completely void of worth, its intentions were to simply single out and destroy the individual to which it pertained. A similar incident occurred at Brown University as a list of notorious rapists was w... ...e P. â€Å"Old Graffiti Adds New Chapter To Ellis Island Story† The Buffalo News 26 Mar. 1989: A-16 Beaty, Jonathan. â€Å"Zap! You’ve Been Tagged!† Time 10 Sept. 1990: 43 Chirag, Matt. â€Å"An Apocryphal History of Graffiti† 73 (xxx): 7 pp. Online Internet. 3 Nov. 1996 Garmire, Elsa & Lui, Catherine. â€Å"Paint Removal Using Lasers† Applied Optics 20 July 1995: 4409 Hertzel, Laurie. â€Å"A Nice Girl Tortured By Vicious Graffiti† The Buffalo News 30 Jan. 1993: C-9 Lindlaw, Scott. â€Å"Slaying of Vandal Strains Ties in Graffiti-Weary Community† The Buffalo News 19 Feb. 1995: A-10 Reese, K.M. â€Å"Chemistry Teacher Patents Antigraffiti Coating† Chemistry & Environment Journal 10, July 1995: 64 Starr, Mark. â€Å"The Writing On The Wall† Newsweek 26 Nov. 1990: 84 Warner, Gene. â€Å"Vandal Defaces Poignant Mural On City’s East Side† The Buffalo News x xxx x: x

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Influences of Eastern Religions in My Life

Influences of Eastern Religions In My Life The two readings that have impacted, influenced, and challenged my view of religion are the Bhagavad Gita (BG) and the basic writings of Zhuangzi. I have chosen these readings because of their influence and insight they have unveiled to me in my present station of life. In particularly, from the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna’s teaching in chapter 2 â€Å"The Path of Reality,† and from Zhuangzi; his perspectives from his writings in section 3 â€Å"The Secret of Caring for Life† and section 18 â€Å"Supreme Happiness. Both have spoken to me from a different context, within a different set of parameters than that of my own faith and practice; bringing me to a fresh and profound understanding of some of my own enduring dilemmas within my own religious tradition. I currently consider myself a Mormon (Latter-day Saint) and have been for the last 13 years. Up until this REL 101 class I was not familiar with these eastern religious t raditions and perspectives.The Path of Reality, as titled for chapter 2 in the (BG), has opened my eyes to its valuable lesson, which I am thankful for its influence. The concept of non-attachment is prevalent here in this chapter. Non-attachment means to live life like a lotus leaf, without being touched by it or polluted by it. It is living free from the encumbrances of life and the attractions and distractions it has to offer, not passively by running away from them, but actively by developing equanimity (yoga) and Self(atman)-awareness (Ch. v. 30-48). According to the (BG) contact with sense objects results in attachment (Ch. 2 v. 58). In the following versus it expounds this thought: When we do not have the right discrimination we lose the ability to choose wisely, which results in the consequences of karma that binds us to this world and samsara. Though I have not embraced every facet of Hinduism, the powerful language found in the (BG) has strengthened me to tackle present-da y ongoing trials in my own life with new vigor and enthusiasm.What I would just simply categorize as sin or an evil deed from the presets of my own religious tradition, I have found new terminology and explanation for my behavior that has been empowering and invigorated my ambition to overcome this adversity I have been facing in my life. The other reading that has had a positive impact on me is the basic writings of Zhuangzi. Section 3 â€Å"The Secret of Caring for Life. † Here, Zhuangzi conveys a story about Cook Ding, the butcher, which draws a more favorable portrait of specialization (Zhuangzi, p. 45-46).His example is consistent with Aristotle's observation that human life offers no more of a fulfilling activity than the exercise of some acquired skill. Highly honed skills invite paradoxical, almost mystical, description. In performance we seem to experience a unity of actor and action. Such practice is a way of losing oneself as one might in contemplation or in a tran ce. Zhuangzi considers Cook Ding possessing remarkable skill, almost effortlessly, because this skill in action is done concurrently while being one with the Dao (p. 45-46).The accuracy of our own actions sometimes mystifies us. We do not understand how we did it; we certainly cannot explain it to others. I found this story intriguing because I am one who values self-mastery. As an ex-collegiate athlete I can relate to Cook Ding, but would rather call it â€Å"being in the zone. † Although I am not a follower of Daoism there are many things I find appealing in this tradition; this mystical story being one of them. The other section from Zhuangzi â€Å"Supreme Happiness† has aided the recent loss of my great grandmother â€Å"Grandma Bea. My great grandma was a pillar of faith in my life and a great exemplar in many arenas of life. At times, naturally, I found myself grieving over her loss. Reading this section I felt that it gave me fresh insight to coping with this l oss. At first, I found myself more like Huizi, rather than Zhaungzi. As pondered this for the past couple weeks my grief has subsided. When Zhuangzi’s wife died and he beat on a drum instead of mourning for her, he answered his Huizi by explaining that perhaps his wife had evolved into a happier existence than that which she had enjoyed while in human form.It was not wrong to have loved her and to miss her, but it was wrong to mourn her change from one form to another (Zhuangzi, 115). Zhuangzi’s parables point out that one cannot be certain what is best for other people and that one should therefore avoid imposing tentative and uncertain values on others. He also enlightens the reader about the realities of death and the clarity that comes from having a higher knowledge which gives greater understanding and ability to cope with death. He states, â€Å"If I were to follow after her awling and sobbing, it would show that I don’t understand anything about fate. So I stopped (115). Thus, death is simply a phase in the turning of the wheel of fortune that is the Dao. The turning of the wheel voids the identity and disintegrates the material body of the dead person. From the standpoint of the Dao, however, no state of being is more desirable than another. As a natural event in the cycle of human life, death is neither to be feared nor to be sorrowed over. This perspective has given me new insight and ability to cope with my recent loss.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Analysis “The Ormolu Clock” by Muriel Spark Essay

â€Å"The Ormolu Clock† is a short story written by Muriel Spark, who is considered to be one of the 50 greatest British writers since 1945. Dame Muriel is a poet, writer of fiction and literary criticism, and biographer – went on to win most of the literary awards going, was never out of print, and was at the top of her profession, internationally, for more than half a century. The story under discussion begins with the description of two hotels standing side by side and separated by a narrow path – the Hotel Stroh and the Guesthouse Lublonitsch. The first one is a disappointment for its visitors, what can’t be said about the second. The story goes on to tell that the author had a chance to get acquainted with the owner of the Guesthouse – Frau Lublonitsch, who was a very hardworking woman. Once he saw her bedroom he was moved by the sight. The room was richly established and there was a large ornamental clock known as ormolu. Under consideration belongs to the belles-lettres functional style, the main aim of which is to give the readers aesthetic pleasure and to make them think. It is an entrusted narrative and is told in the first person from the viewpoint of a visitor of Frau Lublonitsch’s house. The use of various types of narrative allows the author to create plausible characters. The dialogues are used in the personage†™s speech as well. In this short story women dominate men. The proof of it is that the indefinite article is used before the name of Herr Lublonitsch ( There was a Herr Lublonitsch, but he was of no account). Also the 1st paragraph ends with sentence â€Å"But she was undoubtedly the boss.† which marks Mrs. Lublonitsch’s superior position in the relationship of the couple. The story under consideration abounds in different stylistic devices. The most recurrent are metaphors which add up to the emphatic description of the protagonist’s emotions and thoughts (mouth turn down, smell its quality, strip of land, ome of sons emerged from) also epithets (humorous face, opulently dull, nervous stormy night). The detachment is used here as well (She scoured the huge pans herself; wielding her podgy arm round and round.) It specifies the manner of doing the action. In the text there are also various types of repetition: catch repetition (The maids called her Frau Chef. Frau Chef prepares special food†¦),morphemic repetition (drinking, greeting the guests, receiving as much attention†¦), lexical repetition (as she emereged from the kitchen wiping her hands on her brown apron, with her grey hair drawn back tight, her sleeves rolled up, her dingy dress†¦;She owns all the strip of land†¦ She’s got three farms.. She may even expand across the river†¦) This SD underlines Mrs. Lublonitsch’s domination, power and strength, it shows that everything belonged to her only. The Inversion used here gives emphasis to the situation.(Appended to the guesthouse was a butcher’s shop; In the garden grew one useless thing, within it was a bedroom†¦). The author resorts to the use of descriptions of Mrs. Lublonitsch and her room. He opposes her appearance of a peasant to the imperial magnificence of her bedroom. (she emereged from the kitchen wiping her hands on her brown apron, with her grey hair drawn back tight, her sleeves rolled up, her dingy dress†¦) And with the use of similie he compares her to a peasant ( She went and fetched a cloth and mopped up the mess herself, like any peasant†¦). For the description of her room the author uses various detachments that serve as descriptive details ( I saw a canopied bed, built high, splendidly covered with scarlet quilt). Also the colors make a clear contrast of Mrs. Lublonitsch’s personality: grey, black, brown describe her as a working woman, therefore gold, red, scarlet in the description of her room symbolize that she lives like a queen). The most recurrent words: possession, she, the boss, herself acquire the status of the key words. â€Å"The ormolu clock† is a symbol of the time that was ticking for Mr Stroh, reminding him who the boss is. Though it is no longer in his possession it still has an influence on him. ). In the course of the whole story the clock dominates Mr Stroh’s life and his acting. Finally, he â€Å"gave up his gazing; he went indoors, sullen and bent†. That means that he is defeated by the clock, its authority has dominated in the scene. The message is that Mrs. Lublonitsch’s appearance was contrasting with her real possessions, which she wanted to expand.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Morris Lurie’s ‘Pride and Joy’ Essay

Write about how one character from Morris Lurie’s ‘Pride and Joy’ is presented and how this character develops key concerns in the story. Billy in Morris Lurie’s ‘Pride and Joy’ is initially presented as a 16 year old boy who literally lives his life in the footsteps of his abusive, irresponsible, bohemian father, Ned Mathews. By the end of the story Billy’s character has undergone a transformation to become his own person; he has broken away from his father. This short story is told in first person narrative by an anonymous narrator. This narrator is a tourist on an island in the â€Å"Great Barrier Reef† who tells his account of his encounter with millionaire Ned Mathews and his son, Billy. Through his characterization of Billy, Morris Lurie conveys themes of self realization, responsibility, judgment, and parenting. This essay will show how Billy’s characterization develops Morris Lurie’s themes. Wealth, ownership, control and his desire for his father’s approval shows how Lurie, through his characterization of Billy conveys his theme of lifestyle choices. Ever since Billy and his father come to the island they act like they own everything and everyone on it. When they go to eat breakfast in the morning, Billy deals with the â€Å"very pretty† waitress like she is a prostitute, â€Å"‘What’s ya name, honey? he said ‘Why?’ said the girl. ‘I always like to know the names of the girls I sleep with.† Lurie’s use of a colloquial language and inappropriate language such as ‘honey’ and ‘sleep with’ during Billy’s dialogue with a waitress show his desire to control a situation and to please his father; â€Å"‘Easy, son’ said Mathews, but his face was beaming with pride. Billy’s self-confident and commanding swagger, â€Å"He [Billy] walked with an exaggerated swagger† is an example of a movement which Lurie associates with Billy to show yet another aspect of his desire to dominate over everyone else in the restaurant. By exploring Billy’s inappropriate choice of lifestyle in great detail, Lurie expresses his theme, which is to take care when choosing your lifestyle. Billy’s desire to please his father and to control is reiterated by the motif of alcohol. Billy is too young to be drinking as much alcohol as he does, yet he does and he does it to please his father and to control by demonstrating that he is able to drink as much as his father. This is shown in the quotation, â€Å"His son [Billy] matched him drink for drink.† Lurie’s use of the narrator’s voice is very significant here because the narrator is presented to readers as very moral and sensible, so when the narrator talks about a boy drinking as much as a man we worry. This concern is further addressed by the narrative voice in the line, â€Å"I watched the boy. How long could he last? I thought. How long could he keep it up?† and also when he thinks, â€Å"Don’t tell me Billy is outdrinking him. I thought. His own son. His own pride and joy.† The pace is significantly sped up during these two quotations by the shorter more choppy sentenc es. This serves two purposes, first it makes the passage stand out from the rest of the paragraph and second it permits the narrator to clearly state his point. The repetition of â€Å"I though† in both quotations creates an effective link of the two quotations. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the meaning of the two quotes are linked and that the narrator is wondering if Ned Mathew’s own ‘ride and joy’, his son Billy is already better at living the life of a spoiled, rude man than Ned Mathews. This is ironic because Billy is just a boy, so of course the narrator wonders â€Å"How long can he keep it up?† Another example is, â€Å"‘When are we going to have some real drinking, Dad?’†¦ ‘I thought you told me we was gonna have some real fun.'† Billy’s arrogance and the awkwardness of having an adolescent talking about drinking with his father really shines through here. He is almost criticizing his father because he has not had any â€Å"real drinking†. Lurie employs dialogue and colloquial diction such as â€Å"we was† to make the conversation sound even more out of place. Lurie’s selection of alcohol as a motif in the story is important because alcohol has negative connotations and is illegal for adolescents to buy. By associating Billy with alcohol Lurie is implying that the life he is living where alcohol is a daily part of his routine is not suiting. Through Billy, Lurie evokes a theme of self realization which results in Billy’s character development. The first time there is evidence of this change in character is when Billy meets â€Å"the Princess† and eventually when he â€Å"started to cry† after him and his father got into a fight over his father’s abuse of â€Å"the Princess†. The most blatant example of this change however comes from Billy’s request for â€Å"tea† as opposed to the routine â€Å"coffee and beer†, â€Å"‘Not for me,’ said Billy, in a voice I had never heard him use before. A young boy’s voice. ‘Can I have’†¦. ‘a cup of tea?'† In this quotation Lurie utilizes related diction such as â€Å"Can† which has connotations of manners and kindness. Even the narrator recognizes Billy’s character development because he states that Billy spoke in a â€Å"young boy’s voice† which is a voice he had not spoken in before. The narrator is referring to Billy’s transgression from a boy who acts like an indecorous adult to a boy who acts like a â€Å"young boy†. There is also more subtle evidence of Billy’s character development in the text. The adjectives and adverbs change to correspond with the two different aspects of Billy’s character. In the first part of the text adjective and adverbs such as â€Å"bleary† and â€Å"cocky then in the second part of the short story Lurie uses a new selection of adjectives and adverbs such as, â€Å"neat†, â€Å"polite† and â€Å"young†. Lurie’s ability to reveal Billy through three different viewpoints: his father’s, the narrators and Billy’s own view of himself gives different perspectives to his character which helps position the readers to the themes of the short story. The overwhelming amount of dialogue in this text between Billy and his father Ned Mathews shows Billy and his father’s view that everything revolves around them. They are the only voice, which is heard in the story through dialogue despite the fact that there are roughly 80 other people on the island. The movements and actions of Billy convey part of his character. Billy’s actions are often direct or closely linked to the actions of his father. This shows the way that Billy looks up to the actions of his father, and how his father will abuse that respect throughout the story. Directly after his father tells the bartender to get â€Å"off his fat behind† and give a bit of service Billy says, â€Å"Yeah, shake it up there.† This quotation creates a nice image of the typical clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ where a father says something and then his son repeats it. Except Billy is mimicking a very offensive and inappropriate thing that his father just said. This shows the reader how Ned Mathews is a inconsiderate role model and a poor parent. Through Billy’s actions Lurie also shows that Billy is not prepared to live the lifestyle of his father. â€Å"The boy I noticed had to take a breath half way down.† This quotations refers to the fact that Billy cannot drink all of the beer in one â€Å"gulp† when his father can as proof that his father’s life is not necessarily appropriate for him. This concern of Billy not being suited for his father’s life is restated by the narrator when he wonders, â€Å"How long can he last?† Through Billy, Lurie is able to express his themes and concerns in an interesting and realistic manner. The themes and concerns developed in ‘Pride and Joy’ may appear to be very simple and obvious but that by no means makes them less important. Themes such as self realization, responsibility, judgment, and parenting are very significant in everyone’s lives.