Sunday, March 31, 2019

Single Molecule Magnets and Single Chain Magnets Analysis

sensation Molecule Magnets and Single Chain Magnets depth psychologyThe structures and magnetic propertiesmolecular nanomagnets phenoplast resin oxime daedalesGUAN ShengyangTable of Contents (Jump to)1 inlet1.1 Research play down1.2 Introduction to nanomagnets1.2.1 Single subatomic particle magnet1.2.2 Single Chain magnet (magnetic nanowires)1.3 Structure of phenolic oxime and interwovenes2 Researches2.1 Iron complex2.2 Manganese complexes2.3 Complex containing cobalt and sodium ions2.4 Complex containing lanthanon3 Conclusion4 BibliographyAbstractThe basic concepts needed to understand and get whizchain magnets exit also be reviewed.1 Introduction1.1 Research back e accedeThe researches on molecular nanomagnets began from 1990s, when the first single jot magnet (SMM) Mn12O12(O2CPh)16(H2O)4 was researched by Christougroup of University of Florida. GS1This mixed-valent manganese complex was found to wear an abnormal high kink build stir of S=10GS2 and highest stymyi ng temperature ( at a lower place which temperature could the nanomagnets show magnetic properties) in its family (Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4, R = various). A large number of SMMs have been reported since then. TheseGS3 miscellany of complexes display the classical property of magnetic field strength hysteresisGS4 and quantum properties of quantum tunnelling of the magnetic flux density (QTM). These initial discoveries interpret a molecular approach to nano-scale magnetism.Following investigation of single molecule magnets (SMMs) and single chain magnets (SCMs) explorers their potency applications in high-density information storageGS5, quantum computingGS6, magnetic infrigidation GS7and so on. However, to date, nanomagnets discovered have very low blocking temperature (TB). So it is very important to choose appropriate chelate ligands and corresponding admixture centres to construct a proper complex with properties to improve blocking temperature (TB) for operable application.Ph enolic oxime is a family of compounds with generic structure shown in direct 1. The phenolate and oxime aim groups could form intramolecular hydrogen bonding with its neighbour. These hydrogen bonding resulting in strong coordination effect on metal ions. Such property makes phenolic oxime a good extractant for copperGS8 in mining industry. Detailed discussion of the phenolic oxime complex structure willing be introduced in constituent 1.3 . frame of reference 1 general structure of phenolic oximeIn this review, knowledge of nanomagnets will be introduced firstly to provide an overview of this field. Then the structure and magnetic properties of compounds with phenolic oxime ligand will be introduced. New techniques applied in synthesis will also be included. It is hoped that this review could be used to assess the potential of phenolic oxime ligand in high performance nanomagnets.1.2 Introduction to nanomagnets1.2.1 Single molecule magnetIt is helpful to describe the basic theo ry of SMM with an example. The first single molecule magnet (SMM) Mn12O12(O2CCH3 )16(H2O) 4 4H2O2CH3CO2HGS9 was determined to have an S=10 ground spin state, which is contributed by the antiferromagnetic interactions between 4 MnIV ions and 8 MnIII ionsGS10. However, non like normal size magnet, SMM shows slow magnetic relaxation below a characteristic blocking temperature. This phenomenon is explained by the exist of an pushing prohibition in reorientation cognitive operation of magnetic moment. Sessoli et.al. confirmed there exists a relatively large zero-field splitting in this molecule by high-field EPR experiments with a CO2 far-infrared laser. This axial zero-field splitting leads to a splitting of the S=10 state into 21 levels -10 , -9 , -8, -7, -6 , -50, 1, 2, 38, 9, 10. severally level is characterized by a spin projection quantum number ms, corresponding potential energy ..(1)Daxial zero-field splitting parameter. In Mn12O12(O2CCH3 )16(H2O) 4 4H2O2CH3CO2H D=-0.5cm-1Fi gure 2 Figure 1. PovRay representation of the core ofMn12O12(O2CCH3 )16(H2O) 4 4H2O2CH3CO2H, showing the relative positions of the MnIV ions (shaded circles), MnIII ions (solid circles), and 3-O2 bridges (open circlesGS11).Figure 3 Plot of potential energy of different spin state versus magnetization directionFrom Figure 3, it could be known that the splitting of potential energy levels resulting in a potential energy barrier in the process of changing the magnetic moment. For the example SMM, this barrier equals to E(ms=0)-E(ms=10)=100D. Due to the tiny value of D, this barrier could be easily crossed in agency temperature. If sample SMM is magnetized at 1.5K, the magnetic relaxation time becomes also long to measure. When fitted into Arrhenius relationship.(2)The magnetic anisotropy of the SMM is caused by the structure of the eight MnIII ions. Each MnIII ion with in octahedral crystal shows JahnTeller distortion. These distortionGS12 together with spin-orbital interaction give prepare to the light-colored axis type of magnetoanisotropy.To conclude, a typical SMM consists of an inner magnetic core with a surrounding shell of organic ligands. The desired SMM requires easily isolated system which exhibit high spin ground state (S) with a high magnetic anisotropy of the easy-axis (Ising) type. The difficulty is high spin ground state often requests for several nucleuses, but the magnetic orientation of for each one nuclei tends to obey Maximum Entropy Models. In this way, the highest magnetoanisotropy of a molecule couldnt be achieved easily. Some researches show that replacing magnetic core with lanthanideGS13 ions or using single nuclearity spincluster GS14could avoid this problem. Their approaches will be discussed in SECTION 2.1.2.2 Single Chain magnet (magnetic nanowires)While clusters of SMM behind be considered as zero dimensional real, it is possible that one dimensional materials such as nanowires exhibit slow magnetic relaxation and hysteresi s effects which are not associated with multidimensional (3D) order. At 1963, GlauberGS15 predicted one dimension Ising model (easy axial) would show magnetization relaxation under low temperature. Due to insufficient knowledge in this area and stringent conditions required in the synthesis procedure, chemist wasnt be able to find any evidences to support or against the prediction, until Gatteschi et al successfully synthesis Co(hfac)2(NITPhOMeGS16) in 2001.Figure 4 Structure of NITPhOMe=4-methoxy-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxideFigure 5 Drawing of unit cell ofCo(hfac)2(NITPhOMe)2. Large black spheres represent the metal ions. Hydrogen, fluorine, and most of the methyl carbon atoms have been omitted for uncloudednessThe structure of the SCM consists of Co(hfac)2 and radicals arranged in helices alternately( Figure 5). In this one dimensional structure, the magnetic core (octahedral cobalt(II) centres) has overall S=1/2 and shows easy axis of magnetization in t he chain directionSG17. Detailed analysis of spectrums could be found in Caneschis report in 2001.To conclude, three immanent conditions are need for design SCMs 1) the ratio of the interaction and interactions is very large. 2) the material must behave as a 1D Ising ferro- or ferrimagnet. This requires the building block or the core of the chain have large ground state spin. 3) the interchain interactions should be minimized to avoid the magnetism of the material be associated with three-dimensional (3D) order. This final condition also apply for SMMs.1.3 Structure of phenolic oxime and complexes admixture complexes with a planar, electronically delocalized structure have proven particularly magnetic for development of cooperative electronic properties because of the strong moleculemolecule interactions that can arise from -stacking of the planar units2 Researches2.1 3d nanomagnetMany 3d nanomagnets have been synthesized and researched on since the first SMM was discovered.f hexa nuclear MnIII SMMs based on the complex MnIII6O2(sao)6(O2CH)2(EtOH)4(saoH2=salicylaldoximeGS18)9-12 crook Switching via Targeted Structural Distortion2.2 Iron complexVariation of alkyl groups on the ligand fromt-octyl ton-propyl enabled electronic isolation of the complexes in the crystal structures of M(L1)2contrasting with -stacking interactions for M(L2)2(M = Ni, Cu). This was evidenced by a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chain for Cu(L2)2but ideal paramagnetic demeanor for Cu(L1)2down to 1.8 K.2.3 Complex containing cobalt and sodium ions2.4 Complex containing lanthanideAlthough many magnetic transition metal complexes have been synthesised, the temperature required for transition metal complex to exhibit magnetization relaxation (i.e. blocking temperature) is too low. Hence lanthanide metals were introduced to the complex to increase the blocking temperature.4 BibliographyGS1R. Sessoli, H.-L. Tsai, A.R. Schake, S. Wang,J.B. Vincent, K. Folting, D. Gatteschi, G. Christou,and D.N. Hendrickson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(1993) p. 1804.Sessoli, R. Tsai, H.-L. Schake, A.R. Wang, S. Vincent, J.B. Folting, K. Gatteschi, D. Christou, G. Hendrickson, D.N.J. Am. Chem. Soc.1993, 115, 1804-1816.GS2-GS3Resonant magnetization tunnelling in the half-integer-spin single-molecule magnet PPh4Mn12O12(O2CEt)16(H2O)4Spin Tweaking of a High-Spin Molecule An Mn25Single-Molecule Magnet with anS=61/2 Ground StateNew Routes to Polymetallic Clusters Fluoride-Based Tri-, Deca-, and Hexaicosametallic MnIIIClusters and their Magnetic PropertiesMolecular regular hexahedron of ReIIand MnIIThat Exhibits Single-Molecule MagnetismSyntheses, structures and single-molecule magnetic behaviors of two dicubane Mn4complexesGS4Macroscopic Measurement of Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in High-Spin Molecules

Induction of Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase Gene Expression

Induction of Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase Gene ExpressionInduction of aminolevulinic acid synthase cistron side, down-regulation ferrochelatase and enhancement of metabolite, protoporphyrin IX, excretion by co-therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin(1. Isoniazid and rifampicin induce liver-colored accidental combat injury by regulating 5-aminolevulinate synthase and ferrochelatase and enhancing protoporphyrin IX2. Mechanism of rifampicin and isoniazid generate cell death in L-02 cell line and mice)AbstractIsoniazid(isoniazid) and rifampicin(RFP) are first-line anti tebibyte drugs, co-therapy with INH and RFP is highly effective. However, the combination of these two drugs frequently cause liver injury or liver failure in humankinds. The risk of hepatotoxicity is intimately higher in patients receiving both RFP and INH than in those receiving either RFP or INH alone. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanism of injury subsequently isoniazid or rifampici n used in various animal models, however, the consequential mechanism for the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin in humans remains unclear. present we investigated this combination induced hepatotoxicity development L-02 cells and mice.IntroductionTuberculosis remains a global public health problem whose effects have major(ip) impact in developing countries. World Health Organization estimates that in that location were 8.6 million new TB cases in 2012 and 1.3 million TB deaths. The soon recommended treatment for new cases of drug-susceptible TB is a six-month regimen of four first-line drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, etham stillol and pyrazinamide. (Global tuberculosis report 2013). However, the combination of isoniazid(INH) and rifampicin(RFP) frequently cause liver injury or liver failure. The risk of hepatotoxicity is considerably higher in patients receiving the combination than in those receiving either RFP or INH alone. The mechanisms leading to liver failure in humans were poorly understood.Recently, a new mechanism ,independent of INH metabolism, is prove in the RFP and INH co-therapy induced liver injury. Li et al. (Li, et al. 2013) found that co-therapy with RFP and INH targets porphyrin biosynthesis and results in hepatic protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) hookup and liver injury . PPIX is an intermediate in porphyrin biasynthesis. Normally the concentrations of PPIX is very low in the liver. However, in some cases the concentration abnormally elevated in blood and liver, such(prenominal) as erythropoietic protoporphyria. High concentrations of PPIX in the liver are know to cause liver injury (Anstey and Hift 2007 Casanova-Gonzalez, et al. 2010). Using hPXR mice, Li et al. demonstrated that the collecting of endogenous PPIX is through PXR-mediated transcriptional activations of aminolevulinic synthase-1(ALAS1) genes. ALAS1 is the rate-limiting enzyme of proto protoheme synthesis in the liver and is drug-responsive, providing heme for CYPs and othe r hemoproteinsis. Activation of PXR can upregulate ALAS1 expression in liver (Fraser, et al. 2003). RFP upregulate ALAs1 change magnitude heme-biosynthesis in the liver and overproducing PPIX through activating PXR signalling pathway. However, PPIX accumulation strongly suggests that ferrochelatase became a ratelimiting enzyme during INH-RFP treatment (Lyoumi, et al. 2013).Ferrochelatase (FECH) ,the final enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyses ferrous branding iron inserted into precursor porphyrin protoporphyrin IX to form heme, and when defective or deficient, causing accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. Ferrochelatase is active in cells that produce 80% heme in the ram marrow (Bloomer, et al. 1991) and the rest in hepatocytes (Bonkowsky, et al. 1975).The excess protoporphyrinIX becomes insoluble in rancor and exerts cholestatic effects leading to architectural changes in the hepatobiliary system ranging from mild spunk to fibrosis and cirrhosis (Anstey and Hift 2007 ).MATERIALS AND METHODSPI stainingL-02 were allowed to adhere on glass pot dishs for 4h, followed by INH,RFP or INH/RFP. The medium was removed after h and cells were stained with for 30 min. Nuclei were stained with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and images were recorded with a fluorescence microscope. horse opera blottingL-02 cells cultured in flask were harvested using 0.25% trypsin (Hyclone, Thermo Scientific, Waltham, Mass). After centrifugation at 1000r and lysis using buffer for Western blotting (), total proteins were collected by following(a) the getup instructions. Protein concentrations were determined using the BCA Protein Assay Kit (). After heating at 95C for 5 minutes in sample buffer, proteins were stray on SDS-PAGE using 10% polyacrylamide gels before electroblotting onto PVDFmembrane(). Nonspecific binding was blocked by incubation for 2 hours in 5% (w/v) nonfat milk. The following primary antibodies were used overnight at 4C run anti-human FECH antibody( 11000) Rabbit anti-human ALAs1 antibody( 1500) Rabbit anti-human BCRP antibody( 1500). Bound antibodies were spy using horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies (Beijing Biosynthesis Biotechnology Co. LTD). Finally, the membranes were visualized by chemiluminescence.RNA Isolation and Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction for ALAs1 and FECH booth CultureL-02 cells, a human fetal hepatocyte line, purchased from Cell Bank of nobble Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, purchased from Shanghai, China, were cultured according to the manufacturers instructions 15 at 37C in 5% CO2. Cell culture materials were procured from Corning()DiscussionNevertheless, the ability of chemicals to blow up PXR is species dependent. RFP is a human PXR specific activator that weakly affect on mouse (Lehmann, et al. 1998).INH hepatotoxicity is melodic theme to be dependent on metabolic activation by arylamine N-acetyltransferase and CYP2E1, but Li found AcHZ and hyd razine do not cause INH-related hepatotoxicity.Hepatic heme synthesis leading to protoporphyria and possible impact with other metabolic systems (Davies, et al. 2005).References primal SourcesSecondary SourcesUncategorized ReferencesAnstey, A. V., and R. J. Hift,2007, Liver disease in erythropoietic protoporphyria insights and implications for management. Postgrad Med J 83(986)739-48.Bloomer, J. R., et al.1991, Heme synthesis in protoporphyria. Curr Probl Dermatol 20135-47.Bonkowsky, H. L., et al. 1975, Heme synthetase deficiency in human protoporphyria. Demonstration of the defect in liver and cultured scramble fibroblasts. J Clin Invest 56(5)1139-48.Casanova-Gonzalez, M. J., et al.2010, Liver disease and erythropoietic protoporphyria a cryptic review. World J Gastroenterol 16(36)4526-31.Davies, R., et al.2005, Hepatic gene expression in protoporphyic Fech mice is associated with cholestatic injury but not a marked depletion of the heme regulatory pool. Am J Pathol 166(4)1041-53. Fraser, D. J., A. Zumsteg, and U. A. Meyer,2003, Nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor activate a drug-responsive enhancer of the murine 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase gene. J Biol Chem 278(41)39392-401.Lehmann, J. M., et al.1998, The human strip nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions. J Clin Invest 102(5)1016-23.Li, F., et al.2013, Human PXR modulates hepatotoxicity associated with rifampicin and isoniazid co-therapy. Nat Med 19(4)418-20.Lyoumi, S., et al.2013, PXR-ALAS1 a key regulatory pathway in liver toxicity induced by isoniazid-rifampicin antituberculosis treatment. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 37(5)439-41.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Aristotles Theory Of Ethics And Politics Philosophy Essay

Aristotles hypothesis Of Ethics And Politics Philosophy EssayHow does Aristotle conceive of the temper of h one and only(a)st and evil, and how is Aristotles system of ethics and politics is rooted in his biological and ontological theory? How is Aristotles theory a communitarian theory handle that of Macintyre? How does it differ? of all time wonder why as a person you do legitimate involvements or why you argon senseing a sealed bureau about just aboutthing? This is something that is a part of life and as curious piece beings we tend to want to know the answer to everything. Well, the fact of the matter is that some things just cannot be explained, they just happen for a reason and thats the itinerary they are made. There are particular events that make us feel a certain way, and we may select different moods toward others. This explanation, in a small couple of words, is called Human Nature.Human nature is a fantasy of having certain characteristics these character istics included thinking, and feeling all the things that normal kinds would have in common. We cant explain why kinds feel or do certain things, all we can say is that human nature is a sociological way of thing.Aristotle believes that in Human Nature on that point is impregnable and evil..Aristotle believes that if a man does not enjoy doing inviolable acts then he in fact not a trustworthy man at all. First, he must know what he is doing, and he must have an understanding of the act that he is doing. Secondly, according to his bear personality he must choose to act a certain way on whatever it is that he is doing and he must do this for himself only and no one else.It is our contention that people may get along just acts without actually being just men, as in the reason of people who do what has been laid down by the laws but do so either involuntarily or through ignorance or for an posterior motive, and not for the sake of performing just acts.Aristotles reasons about humanity are nearly odd, but it is also something that we were meant to achieve according to him. Aristotle mentioned that the idea that human nature was meant or intended to be something, has lead much slight popular in these more modern times. You are either of course developed to be good or evil in Aristotles fountainhead and there is no in amongst.Aristotles ethical theory is a theory that comes from the theoretical sciences. Its methodology must match its subject matter-good action-and must reckon the fact that in this field many ecumenicalizations hold only for the most part. We study ethics in order to improve our functions, the way we live and how we live is a main factor of ethics and therefore its head concern of the nature of human well-being. He regards the ethical virtues as multifactorial rational, emotional and social skills.He also believed that an organism or instinctive unscathed cannot be fully tacit unless it has a purpose. He says that the general p urpose of any organism is growth towards a mature statue. If this is true, than it is human nature to be greedy.(Im not sure where you get this from it is not nominate that greed contributes to the mature state of a human being further, abandoned this idea of maturity, how is good different from evil) This may be why domain are ether good or evil. Without looking toward becoming a more powerful state, then there is no need to effect greedy.A communitarian idea is based on the ideal of the common good. Aristotle distinguishes between varieties of justice. He first tells the difference of justice as a whole and justice as just partial. In some sense, justice is understood as what is lawful, and the just person is equal to the moral person who follows the rules. jurist is understood as what is fair or equal, and the just person is one who takes only a proper share. Aristotle focuses his discussion on justice as a part of virtue. Each of these justices can be understood and interest ed with achieving equality.Macintyre mentions that the forms of liberalism do not fail because the rules define that right action cannot be adequately grounded apart from a conception of the good. For this reason, Macintyre claims, some version of a communitarian theory of justice that grounds rules supporting right action in a complete conception of good can ever take to to be adequate.Aristotles thoughts of good are different from MacIntyres because MacIntyre believes that a good thing is not totally solid. In other words, you can be good in one situation, but the same action may not be good in another, regardless of what the rules are. Aristotle based justice in following the rules, in other words, if the law says it, and you break the law, than you have become unjust.(This distinction is not useful both Aristotle and MacIntyre respect prudential discernment in differing contexts. Think of this, does MacIntyre have a doctrine of nature like Aristotles? What takes natures place in his doctrine?)Good and evil are odd up to the eyes of the beholder. If a man psychologically thinks that if something is good, then it may be good, regardless of the social norms.(This is neither MacIntyre nor Aristotle it is relativism) This can look unnamed to other people, who may base good and evil off of a social norm. Whether it is Aristotles ideas or MacIntyres ideas, good is what you truly make of it, and in the end, it is up to you to choose what is good and evil.

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

The Pathogenesis of coronary arterial blood vessel diseaseAccording to the World health Organization, cardiovascular diseases ar the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 30 of all global deaths in 2008. A large proportion of CVDs is referable to atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of myocardial infarction or blastoff (1).The pathogenesis of atherosclerosisOver the past two decades, the insurgent hypothesis of atherosclerosis has gained strong footing through multiple lines of supportive evidence (reviewed in (2)). Nowadays, atherosclerosis is considered a complex chronic inflammatory disease of medium- and large-sized arteries.Atherosclerosis occurs predominately at sites of disturbed laminar flow, in particular, arterial branch points and bifurcations. sympathetic and living creature studies indicate that the key initiating step is subendothelial accumulation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-LPs). ApoB-LPs atomic number 18 sec reted by the liver as very low-density lipoproteins, which are converted in the circulation to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In addition, apoB-LPs are secreted by the intestines as chylomicrons, which are converted by lipolysis into atherogenic particles, called remnant lipoproteins (3).Subendothelial apoB-LPs are believed to initiate an early inflammatory response, which may be enhanced by oxidative modification of LPs, through energizing of overlying endothelial jail kioskphones in a manner that leads to the recruitment of monocytes. mad endothelial cells express adhesiveness molecules (e.g. intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1) and secrete cytokines and chemoattractants, or chemokines (e.g. monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and RANTES), that act on monocytes and promote directional migration towards and into the artery wall.Once resident in the arterial intima, monocytes acquire the morphological characteristics of macrophages an d join on their preparation of scavenger receptors, including scavenger receptor A and CD36. Excessive ingestion and internalization of modified lipoproteins via their scavenger receptors leads to the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in cytoplasmic droplets. These lipide-laden macrophages, cognise as foam cells, characterize the early atherosclerotic lesion (figure 1).As the atherosclerotic lesions further develops, macrophage and foam cells predominate, and further serve to alter the plaque environment, changing extracellular matrix composition and decreasing smooth muscle cell content, predisposing to plaque rupture (2, 4).Atherosclerosis and high-density lipoprotein therapyAlthough the development of atherosclerosis is dependent on a complex inter revive mingled with many factors and processes, a clear intimacy has been established between elevated levels of plasma cholesterin and increased atherosclerotic disease (6). To attenuate the risk of atherosclerotic complicatio ns, primary and secondary ginmill strategies seek to correct aberrant blood cholesterin levels. Actively diminution low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol through lipid-modifying therapies, such as statins, yield a proportional decrease in CVD risk (7). However, despite their potency, only 25-50% of cardiovascular events are prevented with highly potent statins, which highlights the importance of seeking for additional treatments for the optimum management of cardiovascular risk (8).Besides reducing LDL, improving alpha-lipoprotein levels has gained a considerable amount of attention during the last decade. Epidemiological studies book shown that plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein) are oppositely associated with clinical events resulting from atherosclerosis (9). Human and animal intervention studies have shown that increasing alpha-lipoprotein results in a reduce atherosclerotic plaque size, suggesting that high-density lipoprotein may be an effective therapy for the degeneration of atherosclerosis (10).The apparatuss for plaque regression have been primarily attributed to the ability of high-density lipoprotein to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues, including macrophages, to the liver for excretion in the bile and feces. This process, called reverse cholesterol transport, is widely believed to account for much of the inverse relationship between plasma alpha-lipoprotein levels and CVD revealed by population studies (11).HDL components gage remove cellular cholesterol by four trenchant processes. The presumed major precursor for this pathway is lipid-poor apoA-I, which is initially synthesized and secreted by the liver. Once in plasma, it rapidly acquires phospholipids and cholesterol from cell membranes in a reaction intercede by the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) that results in the formation of pre- HDL particles (figure 2). A second mechanism involves ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1), with p re- and large spherical HDL acting as the main acceptor. A third involves scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), which has the same acceptors as ABCG1. Lastly, cholesterol can be removed from cell membranes to HDL particles through passive diffusion. The latter(prenominal) three mechanisms are dependent on the presence and activity of Lecithin cholesterol AcylTransferase (LCAT). LCAT can esterify any unesterified cholesterol entering the outer muster up of HDL, after which it provide move into the intensely hydrophobic central core, sledding the outer surface of the HDL particle able to accept to a greater extent unesterified cholesterol (12).Next to promoting cholesterol efflux, studies have shown that HDL is able to cheer against cardiovascular diseases through a variety of additional functions, including anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic, anti-apoptotic (reviewed in (12)). HDL has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects, which are mainly investigated in endothelial cells, and to a lesser extent in vascular smooth muscle cells (13, 14).Macrophages in the pathology of atherosclerosisIt is generally accepted that macrophages play a pivotal lineament in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The accumulation of macrophages and their conversion into foam cells, through the uptake of extravagant amounts of lipids and cholesterol from modified apoB-LP, are considered hallmarks of atherogenesis. By expressing various effector molecules, including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, macrophages have a great force on the activation, migration and survival of other cells in the plaque and ultimately simulate plaque stability. However, within atherosclerotic plaques, macrophages represent a heterogeneous cell population, which may consist of several subsets that have distinct phenotypic and serviceable characteristics, ranging from large quiescent lipid-laden foam cells to a small active inflammatory cell. Furthermore, mac rophages demonstrate a high degree of plasticity, which depend on the environmental cues they are exposed to. In general, macrophages are skewed by interferon- or lipopolysaccharide towards a proinflammatory or M1 phenotype, which produce mediators that have a pro-atherogenic effect. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory or M2 macrophages are polarized by interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-13, which are believed to be of an anti-atherogenic nature. A phenotypical distinction can be made between these subsets based on their differential expression of cell surface expression (15, 16).High-density lipoproteins in modulating macrophagesTo date, HDL is considered to be the good cholesterol, because of its protective effects in atherosclerosis, such as anti-inflammatory properties (14). However, the effects of HDL on macrophages, which are major players in atherosclerosis, have yet to be established.The majority of the search conducted on the effects of HDL on macrophages have mainly been performed on cholesterol- or lipid-loaded macrophages. Here, HDL exerts anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing NF-B activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), era increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines, like IL-10.To date, however, it is not known how HDL affects non-cholesterol or -lipid-loaded macrophages.Cholesterol is an important structural lipid that modulatesPerturbations in cellular cholesterol levels has been shown to affectNF-B is an essential regulator of inflammatory processes in mammalian cells, including macrophages. When the NF-B pathway is activated, NF-B translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription of its target genes, including genes entangled in cytokine production and secretion (17).In addition to NF-B, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinases ( hug drugs) are also implicated in numerous cellular processes, including inflammation. whirls are a group of enzymes that cleave the extracellular domains of various cell surface molecules, of which fling 10 and 17 are the best studied family members. ADAM 10 and 17 are closely related proteases and share many substrates, including TNF- and its receptor. ADAM activity can be regulated at various levels, including mending within the plasma membrane, where lipid rafts are thought to play a role in. Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched microdomains within the cell membrane, which are able to include or exclude proteins to variable extents. This propulsive process regulates protein interactions and influences their functions. Lipid rafts can be decreased and disrupt by cholesterol depletion, e.g. by HDL (18). Tellier et al. showed in vitro that TNF cast was increased in fibroblasts and ECs after incubation with HDL. This was attributed to an increased activity of ADAM 17, which was due to lipid raft disruption by cholesterol depletion (19). admit aim and designThe purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of HDL on macrophage phenotype and whether NF-kB signaling, lipid raft disruption and increased activity of ADAM10 and 17 are involved in this.First, we will determine the effects of HDL on M1 and M2 macrophage polarization by exposing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from C57BL/6 mice to HDL. Here, M1 and M2 polarization markers will be determined using quantitative PCR and ELISA.Second, we will examine whether NF-B signaling is involved in the pro-inflammatory effects induced by HDL in macrophages. Lastly, we will investigate whether HDL skews macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory state by increasing ADAM10 and 17 activity through lipid raft disruption. activity assayWe hypothesize that HDL polarizes macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype due to activation of the NF-B signaling pathway and an increased ADAM10 and 17 activity, through lipid raft disruptionLiterature1. Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B, editors. Global map collection on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention a nd Control. Geneva World Health Organization 2011.2. Wong BW, Meredith A, Lin D, McManus BM. The biological role of inflammation in atherosclerosis. The Canadian ledger of cardiology. 201228(6)631-41. Epub 2012/09/19.3. Williams KJ, Tabas I. The response-to-retention hypothesis of early atherogenesis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 199515(5)551-61. Epub 1995/05/01.4. Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature. 2002420(6917)868-74. Epub 2002/12/20.5. Moore KJ, Tabas I. Macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cell. 2011145(3)341-55. Epub 2011/05/03.6. Liao JK, Laufs U. Pleiotropic effects of statins. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 20054589-118. Epub 2005/04/12.7. MRC/BHF Heart shield Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002360(9326)7-22. Epub 2002/07/13.8. Arsenault BJ, Kritikou EA, Tardif JC. Regression of atherosclerosis. Current cardiolog y reports. 201214(4)443-9. Epub 2012/06/19.9. Rader DJ, Alexander ET, Weibel GL, Billheimer J, Rothblat GH. The role of reverse cholesterol transport in animals and humans and relationship to atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res. 200950 SupplS189-94. Epub 2008/12/10.10. Linsel-Nitschke P, Tall AR. HDL as a target in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nature reviews Drug discovery. 20054(3)193-205. Epub 2005/03/02.11. Oram JF, Heinecke JW. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 a cell cholesterol exporter that protects against cardiovascular disease. Physiological reviews. 200585(4)1343-72. Epub 2005/09/27.12. Soran H, Hama S, Yadav R, Durrington PN. HDL functionality. Current whimsey in lipidology. 201223(4)353-66. Epub 2012/06/27.13. Bursill CA, Castro ML, Beattie DT, Nakhla S, van der Vorst E, Heather AK, et al. High-density lipoproteins suppress chemokines and chemokine receptors in vitro and in vivo. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 201030(9)1773-8 . Epub 2010/08/13.14. Barter PJ, Nicholls S, Rye KA, Anantharamaiah GM, Navab M, Fogelman AM. Antiinflammatory properties of HDL. Circulation research. 200495(8)764-72. Epub 2004/10/16.15. Stoger JL, Goossens P, de Winther MP. Macrophage heterogeneity relevance and functional implications in atherosclerosis. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 20108(2)233-48. Epub 2010/02/26.16. Martinez FO, Sica A, Mantovani A, Locati M. Macrophage activation and polarization. Frontiers in bioscience a journal and virtual library. 200813453-61. Epub 2007/11/06.17. Gilmore TD. Introduction to NF-kappaB players, pathways, perspectives. Oncogene. 200625(51)6680-4. Epub 2006/10/31.18. van der Vorst EP, Keijbeck AA, de Winther MP, Donners MM. A disintegrin and metalloproteases Molecular scissor grip in angiogenesis, inflammation and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2012224(2)302-8. Epub 2012/06/16.19. Tellier E, Canault M, Poggi M, Bonardo B, Nicolay A, Alessi MC, et al. HDLs activate ADAM17-dependent shedding. Jour nal of cellular physiology. 2008214(3)687-93. Epub 2007/09/06.

Effect of Humorous Advertisements on Customer Behavior

Effect of jocular Advertisements on Customer Behavior desire has a universal langu get along with. It doesnt sine qua non degrees in obscure languages, hardly ever in Clinical psychological science and it is one of the few devices spendd to make people smile and recollect at the same succession. supposition has been widely procedured in announce. However, firearm wittiness has attained popularity in advertise, its use is continuously being debated. The primer for this debate is that in that respect atomic number 18 a number of both validating and negative effects which house be attributed to the use of humor.The purpose of this look root word is to answer following questions-The squeeze of gender age on the degree of friendship to the ads.The effect of humor draw in in Ads, on the consumers buying decision.To develop the conclusions exploratory descriptive research designs atomic number 18 used. first-string data are collected with the assistance of Focus gr oup proficiency questionnaire method data is analyzed with the help of various statistical techniques.The conclusions of this paper help in clarifying the dilemma of slapstick advertisements.Introduction advert is one of the critical merchandising variables which marketers use to differentiate intersection points in a cluttered marketplace. In order to increase the effectiveness of advertising for a carrefour, advertising messages should be unique and meaningful. This concurs with the von Restorff effect, which concludes that interference is minimized by the nonification of a unique item in a group of homogeneous items. Companies drop attempted to use many vehicles to create this differentiation effect. angiotensin converting enzyme such vehicle is the employment of humor.In order to have a better understanding, we need to further explore the world of advertisements, the solicitations used, the targeted decision make components and the effects of Ads on the targeted cons umer as a whole.There are deuce main components advertisers aim to effect the affective component, where affective message strategies are applied by invoking feelings and trying to match them with the produce or gain offered in an effort to increase the likeability of the product, and too the cognitive components, where the Ad focuses on the attributes and benefits of the product, encouraging the consumer to buy it. Such components are affected by the supplement points in an Ad these are the features in the Ad that helps the consumer transfer the advertize message into personal value.In order to achieve that, over the historic period, advertisers have attempted a wide variety of advertising approaches, there are seven main ones fear, humor, sex, music, rationality, emotions and scarcity. Advertisers use one or combine several(prenominal) of these orisons to ensure that their targeted audiences receive their message.However, nowadays, humor speak to is being used extensively sometimes combined with others, but most of the time it is slopped sufficiency to be used solely. Humor in advertising constitutes one thousand millions of dollars in expending individually year (Campbell et al. 44).A variety of benefits have been suggested for humorous good luck charms including1) Humor attracts attention.2) Humor can increase retention of the advertising message.3) Credibility of the solution can be enhanced with humor.4) Attitude toward the ad can be enhanced with the use of humor.5) Counter arguments may be minimized with the use of humor because it acts to distract the audience from making cognitive responses.Furthermore, the popularity of humor is ostensible in the fact that 24.4% of television advertisements attempt to be humorous (Alden Hoyer 29). However, succession humor has attained popularity in advertising, its use is continuously being debated. The solid ground for this debate is that there are a number of both authoritative and negative ef fects which can be attributed to the use of humor. Throughout the lit of this paper, the debatable effect of this appeal is discussed.Literature ReviewThere has been numerous researches proving that advertisement with humorous appeal can gain consumers likability. A strong positive correlation is also found between the degree of how puff up an advertisement is liked with the likability to the brand advertised (e.g., Gelb Pickett, 1983 Haley Baldinger, 1991 Weinberger Campbell, 1991 Zhang, 1996). In short, adding humorous elements can enhance ones likability of an advertisement and eventually increase liking to the brand advertised. specify HumorHumor has been widely used in advertising. It has been suggested that 24.4% ofprime time television advertising in the U.S. is intended to be humorous (Weinberger Spott, 1989). Regarding to advertising budget, 10% to 30% out of the totalexpenditure of $150 billion in the U.S. national media, is paid for the placement ofadvertisements that are having humorous surfeit (Spotts, Weinberger Parsons,1997). Operationally. humor is defined, according to Sternthal and Craig (1973), asheightened arousal, smiles, and laughter exhibited by an audience in response to aparticular message (p.13). Moreover, humor can be defined in terms of how well theaudience perceive the train of humor and it can be administered by pencil and paper tribulation to measure how the audience perceive a particular message is humorous andfunny or not.Humor in Advertising and Its EffectThe debate why humor has been widely used in advertising is collect to its power ofcreate liking towards the advertisement by from the consumer. It has been found byWeingerber and Spotts (1989) that advertising practitioners coming from the U.S. andU.K. are generally favor in the use of humor on advertising. A couple of reasons arefound and back up by many other researches that humor can enhance ones loving attitude towards an advertisement. It is reviewed by Weinge rber and Gulas(1992) that ten advertising studies and seven non-advertising studies report a positiveeffect of humor on liking while totally two advertising studies and three non-advertisingstudies report neutral or miscellaneous findings.ObjectiveThe purpose of this research paper is to answer following questions-The impact of gender age on the degree of affection to the ads.The effect of humor appeal in Ads, on the consumers buying decision. investigate Methodology(a) Research Design To have a better understanding active the bulge exploratory research design was used. Two focus groups (i.e. one for each gender) were conducted to get the in depth insights about the topic. Each group consisted of 7 persons.Further descriptive research design was used to get the primitive data with the help of close ended questionnaire.(b) Sample Design 70 respondents were selected through convenience sampling.(c) Analysis The data collected was analyzed with the help of various statistical tools like Chi-square test, ANOVA etc.Analysis Interpretations beta research results (I) Focus Group (A)It consisted of 7 males who were asked to provide views on the issue. It was a general opinion that to make the ad inte equilibriuming creative there is in no harm in using humor appeal in ad but one also considered it purely offensive. They were also agreed on the fact that some time they buy the product because of Ad effect but product attributes are also as important.(II) Focus Group (B)It consisted of 7 females who were asked to provide views on the issue. A contradiction in terms in views was seen half of them believed that humor appeal increases the liking of ads while rest treat it offensive or unaffected. 70% of them said that advertisements dont affect the get decision.(b) Descriptive research results 54% of the respondents were male rests were female. 24% of the respondents were from less than 30 years age group 76% were from more than 30 years age group.55% of th e respondents admitted that their intuition or the way they feel about the product finalize their decision of purchasing the product, 35 % considered advertisement of product as the basis of purchase decision and rest purchase the product because of the attributes of product.62% indeed admitted that they have purchased the product just because they liked the commercial. twain results indicate the affect of advertisements on the purchase decision of customers.When asked what they look for in an Ad 45% believed the most important attribute of an ad is creativity, followed by 26% who believed it was the endorsers used how they relate to them.56% of the respondents believed that, the use of humor contentedness in advertisements is acceptable for products as long as its within sealed limits. 27% found it offensive rest said that humor appeal increases the creativity of ads.Four print advertisements containing humor appeal (Refer Appendix) were shown respondents were asked to disclos e their views. The results were as follow-ResponseAd 1Ad 2Ad 3Ad 4 entirenessPercentageOffensive07012197%Interesting111616165921%Creative24536198430%Really skilful292910107828% wrong07613269% unaffected / Bored6620145% come up70707070280100%58% of the customers found the advertisements Creative nice while very few respondents treated it offensive or unethical, which indicates that respondents are taking advertisements in positive manner. legal age of Respondents (i.e. 75%) replied that they would purchase the product based on the advertisements the humor appeal used in ads changed their purchase decision.(c) Hypothesis Testing H01 = There is no linkup between degree of affection to the ads gender of respondentsH11 = There is an association between degree of affection to the ads gender of respondents.GenderDegree of tendernessTotalSmart / CreativeInappropriate / UnethicalCorrect where needfulMale882238Female4111732Total12193970 2 testCalculated ValueDegree of freedom train o f deductionTabulated Value1.9425%5.99The result of the analyse shows that the null-hypothesis holds to be valid thus there is no association between degree of affection to the ads gender of respondents.H02 = Degree of affection towards the ads will be the same irrespective of the age of respondents.H12 = Degree of affection towards the ads will not be the same irrespective of the age of respondents.AgeDegree of nitty-grittyTotalSmart / CreativeInappropriate / UnethicalCorrect where infallible11151730 Years1183453Total12193970ANOVA (F-ratio)Calculated ValueDegree of FreedomLevel of SignificanceTabulated Value1.66(1,2)5%18.501The analysis supports the null-hypothesis that degree of affection towards the ads will be the same irrespective of the age of respondents. In other words age was found to have no meaning(a) remainders on the degree of affection to the ads.H03 = Humor appeal doesnt affect the buying decision of respondents.H13 = Humor appeal affects the buying decision of respondents.Product PurchaseDecision ChangeTotalAgreeDisagreeYes102107209No195271Total121159280 2 testCalculated ValueDegree of FreedomLevel of SignificanceTabulated Value10.5215%3.841The analysis provides enough bear witness to reject the null Hypothesis. In other words Humor appeal affects the buying decision of respondents.ConclusionsIt is a big question in marketing area that how the Humor appeal used in advertisements, is perceived by respondents. In the same line this research was conducted and following conclusions were drawn-Humor appeal was not taken in negative manner by respondents if it was used in a limit for the relevant products to make the ad creative.Exploratory research shows that there is a thin line difference between the opinion of males females but as per the chi-square there is no significant difference in the views of males females towards the advertisements.Respondents of every age group having the same views on the issue.Humor appeal used in advertisemen ts motivated the respondents to purchase the product but attributes of the product also plays a significant role in buying decision.ReferencesJournal of Legal, honest and Regulatory Issues/Jan-July, 2006 Ethics in advertising sex sells, but should it? by Jessica Dawn Blair, Jason Duane Stephenson, Kathy L. Hill, John S. GreenThe Ethical Dilemma of Advertisements By May Abd El Latif El Hattabhttp//www.ukessays.com/essays/marketing/sexual-appeals.phphttp//www.articleswave.com/advertising-articles/types-of-advertising-appeals.html

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Internet Advertising Essay -- Computers Technology Media Essays

network Advertising The November cover story for Newsweek was entitled e-life and the wall plug was dedicated to the some ways that the Internet is changing our lives and work. While the changes realize affected many industries and many jobs, one of the biggest changes in marketing and gross revenue is the rapid and unpredictable growth of Internet-based sales and advertising. Currently, many utilizers benefit from the use of free email sites and Web-search portals, all of which argon funded by revenues from banner advertising. (Sadly for these advertisers, many ar increasingly able to ignore this stimulus). All types of businesses now insufficiency to reach an audience that is more consistently logged on to the Internet. If the Internet is where the customers are to be found, then that is where advertisers must go. While many of us are acutely aware of this fact, few of us know enough slightly how to place ads, what types of ads are available, and how the industry is chang ing. This paper is dedicated to understanding this consequence further.The Context Who Is Spending On Ads and How Much?In 1997, businesses spent $600 trillion on Internet advertising, and Internet ad spending rose to $1 billion in 1998.1 To put these poetry in context, it is useful to examine the growth in Web advertising to the growth in non-Web advertising2 course Web Advertising Spending $ Non-Web Ad Spending $ 1997 600M 133 Trillion 1998 1B clv Trillion Such a table indicates clearly that Internet ad spending doubled while non-Web spending grew by 17%, and these numbers give marketers some sense of the urgency and immediacy of the need to assume about Web-based advertising. Interestingly, marketers have caught on studies show that total I... ...arketers in net profit are consider what type of ads you want to place, consider carefully how you plan to measure success of your campaign- attempt to monitor mindshare as well as final sales. 1 www.computerworld.com, BancAme rica Corp., Robertson, Stephens & Co. Date posted Feb. 23, 1998 2 ibid. Source Veronis Suhler & Associates and BancAmerica Corp., Robertson, Stephens & Co. estimates (12/97)3 Ibid.4 Internet Advertising Bureau, December 29, 1997.5 Internet.about.com/business/Internet/library/weekly/1999/aa061499.htm?iam=dp&rf=dp, Dateline 06/14/99 6 www.adres.Internet.com7 www.blueplatypus.com, interstitial ads search.8 Ibid.9 Ibid.10 Internet.about.com/business/Internet/library/weekly/1999/aa061499.htm?iam=dp&rf=dp Dateline 06/14/9911 adres.Internet.com/primer/article/0,1401,,00.html

Napoleon: A Leader Or Dictator. Essay -- essays research papers

pile A Leader or Dictator.There are never ending inquiries on the nature of forty winksic power. But reason ass prove to one that the Age of Napoleon was infact a time of representative rule. Through political, Social, and Economical reforms, Napoleon Bonaparte did not only transcend France, but he changed the course of history for Europe and the World today.To begin, Napoleon proved himself a democratic leader thorough many Political reforms. In 1798-99, Napoleon, with the directorys blessing, he launched his Egyptian Expedition. It was a military disaster, but Napoleon came to France a hero and saved France from the second coalition. In 1799, he present his "Coup Detat," and setting up the Consulate, government body representing a area in another host country, with himself as First Consul. At prototypic this does not seem just, but Napoleon then submitted his new paper to a Plebiscite, a vote of the people, and it was approved by a enormous majority. Although the constitution gave almost complete power to the First Consul, it was the people of France who voted , as a democratic society would, to enforce this new structure of government. In 1802, Napoleon again held a Plebiscite, and was named to be First Consul for life. Also, in 1804, he submitted to Plebiscite a new constitution, ending the consulate and establishing the First French Empire. Also wake Democratic Political advancement, Napoleon signed The Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church. He t...

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Santana :: Essays Papers

SantanaAll the world knows the specific magic of Carlos Santana as expressed through his medication and his guitar playing, which is among the most distinctive and recognizable in all in all symphony. His is a tone of vibrant energy that bathes the human person and awakens the unconscious feeling. The spirit of truth, the spirit of Brotherhood. In every performance, Carlos shares with his audience a personal communication that crosses all boundaries and differences, and makes all people, one people, one family. Carlos music embodies a living heritage of music and family. The Brothers album (on Island Records), described as a banquet of melodic treats and surprises, has Carlos sharing the spotlight with two special guitarists - brother, Jorge Santana, and nephew Carlos Hernandez in his recording debut. In SACRED FIRE, a 97 minute video and 13-song CD released by Polydor in 1993, Carlos captured the fanaticism and spirit of his live concerts in Mexico and South America with a m ix of his biggest hits as well as some previously unrecorded material. In work FOREVER, the debut release on his Guts & Grace label, Carlos remunerative his respects to some contemporaries whose spirits continue to provide musical inspiration for us all. The CD includes songs by Jimi Hendrix, Marvin Gaye, Bob Marley, Stevie Ray Vaughan and fundament Coltrane. Each of these three projects offers a glimpse, an added dimension, of a soul that has touched millions almost the world. Carlos was introduced to traditional music by his father, Jose. An accomplished mariachi violinist and experienced musician, he taught Carlos the basics of music theory and gave him an understanding of the value of a note. Although Carlos excitement for music would be sparked by his first experience, he quickly spy the limits of its traditional form and wanted more. Carlos wanted to play the kind of music that was filling the radio waves and making people dance. Tijuana, 1955. The music was rock n roll. The drastic change of moving from the small, quiet townspeople of Autlan to the humming, thriving boom town of Tijuana brought a renewed hope and opportunity for a new life. both(prenominal) for Carlos and his family. The eight-year old Carlos quickly left the violin for the guitar, studying and emulating the sounds of B.B. King, T-Bone Walker and pot Lee Hooker. Soon he was being asked to join local bands standardised the T.J.s, where he added a unique touch and feel to his own renditions of all the great songs of the 1950s.

The Childrens Thoughts of Mrs. Kay in Our Day Out :: Our Day Out Willy Russell Essays

The Childrens Thoughts of Mrs. Kay in Our Day OutIn the introduction I am going to use a paragraph to describe what thechildren venture nigh Mrs Kay and Less cite about Mr Briggs. In thestory, Reilly describes Miss Kay as ace. When Les kale Mr Briggs atthe crossing his says to a child I got him that time. Arrogant getthat one is. I think this means that Les has tried to stop him in themornings before exactly has failed.Firstly I am going to describe Mrs Kays and Mr Briggs relationshipwith the bookmans.Mrs Kay seams friendly with the pupils and plays football with them,but Briggs is more formal with and shouts. Mrs Kay sees thedifficulties in the pupils and is sympathetic. A quote for this is wecant come al the way to the seaside and not go down to the beach.Briggs doesnt see the problems that the children have and treats likethem like any other children. When they are at the castle Briggs saysWhat does perpendicular mean? A pupil answers him and he is laughedat. Mrs Kay doesnt enforce any rules on the children and lets them doas they please. Mrs Kay told the number one wood of the carriage that the leadterrible lives so he felt ghastly for them. She said to another memberof staff the She be like hell. Mrs Kay lied for the children so Ithink that the children may lie as considerably thinking that it is the rightthing to do. While Mr Briggs thinks that all children should be interact the same with problems or not. Therefore he acts hard on thechildren and is strict, for face Reilly. Dickson. Sit downMrs Kay messes around with the pupils. A game of football is inprogress. Mrs Kay is in goal. At this stage in the story Mr Briggssees that it is a farce and stand firm to cooperate for the rest of thetrip.Secondly, I intend to explore both teachers opinions aboutdiscipline.Mrs Kay lets them run free in the shop, steeling money and food,taking from the menagerie and lead a mockery inside of the castle.In the zoo, Briggs trusts the children to go around t he zoo sensibly,while he has a cup of coffee with Mrs Kay. Some establish for this isAll right Mrs Kay. Well trust them to act responsibly. When they getback on the bus later, all the children are quite, which is a bitunusual. Then the zookeepers come on board and take away the animals.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Enduring Love Extract :: essays research papers

In an extract from Ian McEwans Enduring Love the main character, Joe, faces many conflicts ruttishly. In Joes mind, his emotions and lucid thought pull him in two different directions when all told he seeks is a common answer. In order to portray Joes emotional distress, Enduring Love is told through with(predicate) first person narration. Joe searches for logical explanations however the more he looks, the further the rightfulness seems to be. The day after bathroom Logans death, Joes cognizant professs the whole event illumined and animated in his mind. He begins to relive the nightmare, trying to find the right answers. His guilty conscious accuses him of killing (John Logan). Joe cannot deal with his new-found responsibility and tries to find what he believes to be the truth. On one hand, he complimentss the truth to be that he was not an participator in a mans death yet on the other hand he wants to know what actually happened and who was the cause of it. However, th e truth is, he will never know. He is left with questions and he who believes unaccompanied in science, math and the nature of knowing, cant comprehend this fact. Joe analyzes the office staff using his mathematical and scientific knowledge. He believes that eight hundred pounds would rent kept them close to the ground and therefore, the first person to let go is at fault. He is looking for someone to institutionalize and so places all the responsibility on this one soul. Yet he does not want to be this person, when he knows he very well could be. The thought of this macrocosm possible is excruciating and he obsessively tells himself that it was not him. He single wants the truth if the person turned out to be him. Joe tries manipulating mathematics to make calculations regarding the balloon incident and uses his analytical mind to find answers yet he never allows his feelings to consume him. Hes always analyzing his own thoughts. He wants a selected truth not reality. Joes co nflict is also shown through a repetition of certain vocalizes. They show his feelings transition from self- blame to scrutinizing for the culprit. While trying to ease his mind, Joe no longer uses the word I. He cant take his own accusations and so places the blame on the group as a whole. He repetitively uses the word we when referring to what could have been done but was not.

Robert Frost :: essays research papers

personality is all around us and we are bound by it unpredictable transformations. Robert ice finds the ravisher of character, yet is quite aware of its fickleness. character is a mundane detail that we rarely take time to send word and sometimes take for granted its tendency to constantly make the populace beautiful. In many of Frosts poems about personality, he recognizes the beauty of nature, exactly is also bewildered and sometimes saddened by its continuous change.Frosts poem, Nothing Gold Can Stay, portrays the idea of nature organism a life force throughout all of time. Nature is constantly showing us her beauty, but he reminds us that from apiece day to the next, nothing can be a permanent holdfast all the time. In A Boundless Moment, Frost is so attracted to natures cycle, that he defies what nature ought to do, by creating a leaf that is clinging on to a tree, but the reader knows that this cannot be and soon it will dusk off like the rest of the leaves. We do n ot know when, but this abnormality cannot continue, it must change. desolate Places shows more of Frosts emotions and deals with the immanent progression of life. When the narrator realizes that the snow is covering all of the ground he becomes aware that nature is no longer alive or award in his midst. Frost is saddened with this idea of death and expresses the true loneliness of life. initiation Pools portrays this same image of death, but it is almost a continuation to Desert Places, because it provides hope with the snow that melted only yesterday. It considers the better aspects of life and that being the end of a cold winter, and the beginning of a beautiful spring. The variety of the world is wonderful, and provides the insight that nothing lasts forever without going through a series of changes and constant growing and maturing.Stopping by woodwind instrument on a Snowy Evening is a much happier and more public assistance poem. This poem is about stopping to enjoy life or as the adage goes, stopping to smell the roses. But I have promises to keep, and miles to go before I sleep. The speaker in this poem was a really busy man who always had obligations to fulfill and places to go. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening is the opposite of Desert Places.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Great Gatsby :: essays research papers fc

Fitzgerald&8217s MasterpieceF. Scott Fitzgerald&8217s The expectant Gatsby is an enchanting new, which tells an exquisite grade through various techniques characteristic of a gifted author. The story has elements of deceit, high hopes, fallen dreams, and false intentions which make it thrilling to read. However, the true headliner of the novel lies in the character description, conniption of the novel, and the structure and form occasiond. It is these literary devices that set The Great Gatsby apart from other novels.Life in the 1920&8217s was much different than that of life during any other era and Fitzgerald depicts this in The Great Gatsby very accurately through the characters. One critic stated that &8220The only bad of it is that the characters are mostly so unpleasant in themselves that the story becomes rather a bitter does before one has destroyed with it (Wilson 149). Where as one may take this as an insult, it can as tumesce as be taken as a compliment. This s hows that Fitzgerald described the character and their do so realistically that the reader developed strong opinions of the characters. Fitzgerald&8217s use of the setting is also another incredible technique used in The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald&8217s description of Gatsby&8217s mansion is a pure(a) example of this. &8220The one on my right was a colossal single-valued function by any standard- it was a factual imitation of some Hotel de Ville in Normandy, with a tower on one side, spanking new under(a) a thin beard of raw ivy, and a marble travel pool and more than forty acres of lawn and garden. It was Gatsby&8217s mansion. Throughout the novel Fitzgerald uses this type of description to put the reader into the story and give them a realistic sense of the time period.Not only do the haggle themselves paint pictures, but also the structure and form used is a delight. &8220&8230Every line of hard and intelligent effort (Mencken 148). The incredible part to the highest degree this is that Fitzgerald does not do it too elaborately where the reader will form lost, but &8220written in sentences one can understand which is a comfort (Stein 149). Fitzgerald has written a complete novel which is his &8220 crush planned, best sustained, and best written of Fitzgerald&8217s works&8230not a whole in it anywhere (Wilson 147).The Great Gatsby is one of the few novels that is able to incorporate a wonderfully crafted setting and a very realistic set of characters that depict the young the great unwashed of the time all in a smooth flowing well written novel.

Do Rich and Poor Districts Spend Alike? :: essays research papers

Do Rich and Poor Districts run Alike?(NCES 97-916) Ordering InformationThe right to a free and state-supported study has long been considered to be at the heart of the American perfection of equal opportunity for all. The importance placed on humans simple-minded and secondary education services is reflected in an annual cost of more or less $250 billion. Given the magnitude of this investment, it is not surprising that there is also a great deal of interest in how these dollars be allocated to students. One give of this interest is a long Mitigative and research history examimng the blood between access to universe education resources and community wealthiness (e.g., capital of Switzerland and Stiefel 1984).The purpose of this brief is to provide a govern view of this human relationship across all of the school zones of the nation for the 198990 school year. These findings are based on a Research and Development Report (Parrish, Matsumoto, and Fowler 1995) produced b y the National Center for Education Statistics. Since this research is intended to be developmental in nature, these resuks should be considered tentative and suggestive. Although different measures of community wealth and frequent education resources may be used, in this analysis community wealth is defined as the median income of the households located within school district boundaries./1 This measure of wealth is compared to three alternative measures of the resources available to public schools in the district. These are expenditures per student, expenditures converted to education "buying power," and the average repress of students per teacher. The first measure is in actual unadjusted dollars the second is an try of the relative power of those dollars to buy education resources and the third is a direct measure of arguably the most critical single education resource, the ratio of students to teachers. While dollars and students per teacher are direct measures of th e actual resources received by students, "buying power" is a new concept currently at a lower place development by the education research community. These three measures represent a progression from the dollars available for students, to an estimate of the relative power of those dollars to buy education resources, to a direct measure of those resources.Districts with high-income households have more to spend for public education.Differences in public education spending are most marked at the extremes of median household income (figure 1). The average public education expenditure in districts serving students in the nations poorest communities (i.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

COP 3530, Discrete Data Structures and Algorithms, Summer 1999, Homework 3 :: UFL Florida Computer Programming Homework

crystallise Notes Data Structures and AlgorithmsSummer-C Semester 1999 - M WRF 2nd Period CSE/E119, Section 7344Homework 3 -- Due Thu 10 June 1999 09.30amThis is the key for Homework 3. Answers are in spirited typeface. * Question 1. Given an 8-element sequence S = (3, -10, 4, -3, 8, 6, 5, 1), diagram the merge-sort tree (architecture) for the divide, sort, and control phases of the merge-sort algorithm, as we did in class. Label each level (e.g., L1, L2, etc.), as you allow for need this information in Question 2. Do not publish code for merge-sort. Answer aim 1 (3, -10, 4, -3, 8, 6, 5, 1) / Level 2 (3, -10, 4, -3) ( 8, 6, 5, 1) / / Level 3 (3, -10) (4, -3) (8, 6) (5, 1) X X X X

Ernest Hemingways Life and Image :: History

Ernest Hemingways Life and Im termErnest Hemingway was born on a July break of day in 1899. Born at home in Oak Park, he was raised a conservative with strong values. patch his father taught him to course and fish, his mother taught him music, her former profession. Though his mothers music lessons helped him passim his life, he didnt particularly enjoy the lessons and spent as very much time in the woods as he could manage.Nature became Hemingways world, the place where he could go and pull from it the essence of his writing. No emergence what happened in his life he could always find refuge in a quiet meadow or a lulling forest. Inspired by nature, Hemingway used it to form a force that became both a condescension and almost a character in his books, that would speak to a indorser and tell them that a story wasnt over, simply because it never rightfully ends.People look back at Hemingways life as if it was one of his novels. He is not seen as a writer just as a personage of writing. At a young age of 18, in 1917, Hemingway enlisted as an ambulance driver in World War I, afterward quitting his job at the Kansas City Star. Hemingway didnt make it three weeks into his service. While in Schio, Italy, he was injured by an exploding mortar, perforating his legs with shrapnel. In spite of this, it is give tongue to that he carried a wounded Italian to a first help oneself station this earned him an Italian Silver Medal. For the next year, Hemingway used his insurance policy from the war to avoid work. He would spend his time at the depository library or speaking about the war. Eventually he met Harriett Connable while speaking, who dictum Hemingways confidence and control. Connable asked him to tutor her son. He accepted, as her husband introduced Hemingway to the editor program of the Toronto Star Weekly, who he wrote for even when he go to Paris. While in Paris he covered the Geneva Conference, and the Greco-Turkish War. Hemingway and his first wif e Hadley moved back to Toronto though, when she became pregnant. In 1925, both years after his son can buoy was born, Hemingway wrote In Our Time, and a year later The Sun Also Rises. These two novels were great successes, and led to his Farewell to Arms, which is considered by many a prevailing to all World War I novels.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Disneyland Essay examples -- Disney Amusement Parks essays research pa

DisneylandThe greatest place on the face of the earth is Disneyland. nowhere elsehas the magic that a day at Disneyland possesses. From my childhood to myadulthood, I fool never projectd a day at Disneyland that didnt put copiousjoy in my heart to far exceed the admission price. Rides, shops, shows, andcharacters. These ar just a few of the many great aspects of a marvelousplace called Disneyland.Disneyland has always been a very special place to me. My parents tookmy family at that place for the first time when I was about three. To this day I legatoremember shaking Mickey Mouses hand, giving Goofy a hug, and concourse all of therest of my favorite Disney characters. It was a truly euphoric experience tomeet stars of all my favorite cartoons that I so loyall...

Total Effect of The Tragedy of Macbeth :: essays research papers

The ShadowThe Tragedy of Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, gives the ref an impact of the horror at the darkness in humans. In the story, the intimately dominant literary element is the theme. The theme brings out the impact of horror, mend the other literary elements support it. One of the most evident quotes that do me think of the horror of darkness in humans was said by Macbeth, Stars, hide your fires Let not light see my black and thickheaded desires This quote showed that Macbeth was heavily influenced by his ambitions.The theme, being the most dominant literary element, shows how the darkness in people has been drawn out. Themes such as way versus reality, attempts to control the future, human responses to supernatural powers and loyalty show how we can be easily taken over by the evil in us. afterwards the death of King Duncan, Macbeth tries to convince himself that he did the right thing. He dispatch his king in cold pipeline and regained his consciousness for a apprize moment. Will all great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from my hand? this quote, likewise spoken by Macbeth, gives the reader a sense that he regained his ego and was exposed with extreme guilt. It also gives a sense that he was possessed by a demon. This can be backed up by the theme of human responses to supernatural powers. Although the witches bring in greatly here, I would want to talk about hallucinations first. (In psychology, hallucinations are a form of supernatural powers.) The soliloquy in Act II stroke I show Macbeth hallucinating of an imaginary, bloody dagger. Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand? This was his fondness of what was upcoming, the murdering of King Duncan. This illusion gives the reader a sense that he is possessed by his alter-ego that he is going to kill the king. The witches foretold the future, and that their prophecies of Macbeth let his own shadow take over himself. Being that Macbeth went crazy from murdering his king, he also became aware that this murdering might also happen to him. This he decided to try and control his future well, at least in several attempts, but always ended up half done. To be then is nothing, but to be safely thus this quote shows that Macbeth is in fear, and he tries to overcome this fear by eliminating anyone that was a threat to him.

Friday, March 22, 2019

Every Child Counts :: Teaching Education Careers Essays

Every Child CountsGrowing up I love being surrounded by children. Looking back on my preceding years, I realize that teaching has always been a desire of mine. As a child I read to my dolls, pretended to be a teacher to my friends, and baby-sat every opportunity that arose. No matter what the situation was, if on that point were children involved, you could count me in. I love the feeling of being around children the experience they bring to a room is what pull outs them so special. Children ar wonderful beings that make me laugh and realize how precious life heap be. I take hold chosen to teach elementary age students because these are the most all important(p) years they provide encounter as they are shaping who they will become. I believe I am taking my God-given gift of pleasing others, especially children, and using it to benefit the people around me. So many students are neglected, ignored, and abused because people fail to see their worth. I admit that kids are creative, spontaneous, sweet human beings and they have a hunger to witness. I feel I have many gifts to offer these children and try for I can have a true impact on their lives. My hope is to learn round each individual and touch them each in different ways. I know I will have classrooms alter with diversity but it will be a priority to learn something unique of each student.One thing I have spy that happens a lot in our beingness is prejudices. Children are so insecure to different cultures and are quick to make judgments. It is my job to teach my students about these different cultures so when they see someone unlike themselves they will non make fun of them. Instead I want these children to be shady and willing to understand why people are different because it is what makes our world unique. While I am learning about them, my hope is that they are willing to learn about each other as well. I hope to unite children of all cultures by teaching them to be ho mophile(a) about others, learn about them, and appreciate their differences. In doing this maybe we can stop some of the prejudices they may have and build a loving community of people who think about each other sooner of only themselves.

Circumcision To Be Or Not To Be :: essays research papers

To be or not To Be?Push Push, I bear bay windowvas it crowning. Dont stop keep pushing. The furbish up says in a deep but calming voice. I can see it, I can see it Here it comes says rear end with divide of excitement in his eyes, as he looks at his beautiful married woman Nechelle, who is about to give birth to their graduation child, will it be a boy or a girl he wonders. I see its head, one more push here it comes Oh my god its here, its a boy Yes its a boy We will make up him John Jr.John shows all the signs of a man who is tout ensemble excited about having a newborn son, but the truth is that in the back of his mind there is question, a dark scary question, that John still has no answer to. Should his son be circumcised? To be or not to be that is really and truly the question. Before John can make a wise, educated decision he must first understand what circumcision is, why it is done, how it is done, how it affects the natural functions of the penis, and what the al ternatives are. Circumcision is a surgical procedure in which the skin covering the end of the penis (called the foreskin) is removed exposing the glans (head or expiration of the penis)(Love) The procedure is usually done on infants in the first some days of their life. A doctor does the procedure. Circumcision is an ancient and widespread practice. Some cultures as wide spread as the aborigines of Australia, to the Kazakh of Russia circumcises their virile children. An Egyptian inscription from just about 4000 BC refers to the procedure. Male mummies have been found to be circumcised. (Encyclopedia of Human gender 118) According to the Old Testament god commanded Abraham to circumcise all males of his household.The religious, religious and emotional reasons for circumcision differ greatly from a pact with god, to showing your fealty to a tribe by having your son publicly undergo the procedure. simply are there any medical justifications for circumcision? According to the A merican academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in 1971 There are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period. Recently however the AAP reconsidered its position. In 1989 it concluded that circumcised male infants have potential medical benefits and advantages, after all uncircumcised males have eleven times more urinary tract infections.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

The Importance of the Sea in Chopin’s The Awakening Essay examples --

The impressiveness of the Sea in Chopins The AwakeningUnlike Mara Eugenia, Edna in Kate Chopins The Awakening chooses not to fill her familys expectations. As she takes her final steps into the sea she thinks to herself they need not have public opinion that they could possess her, body and soul (655). Edna treasures her autonomy and chooses death over familial subjugation. However her transformational journey, alluded to by the title of the novel leads to more than the rejection of her self-sacrificing familial roles as wife and mother and her death. We first meet Edna on her panache back from a swim with Robert Lebrun, as Chopin begins to establish Ednas burgeoning transformation in the context of her family relationship with Robert and to the sea. While Robert and Ednas relationship develops, Edna becomes increasingly dissatisfied with her marriage to Lonce Pontellier and her traditional roles as wife and mother to her two children, Rauol and Etienne. Edna learns to swim, t akes up painting, befriends Madame Reisz, an eccentric old woman that plays the piano, and moves into her knowledge house. After Robert leaves for Mexico, she engages in an affair with Alce Arobin, until Robert returns and they affirm their love for one another. However, Robert, hangdog of the social repercussions of their affair, leaves town. As a result of losing Robert, failing to find fulfillment in her life without a man, and failing to reconcile her roles as a good and faithful wife and mother while becoming an workman and falling in love, Edna commits suicide by drowning herself in the sea.The sea, or green-world memento is present throughout the novel as Edna engages in her innermost thoughts and her relationship with Robert, the green-world lover. Although ... ...pport of Mr. Pontellier, her children, Madame Ratignolle, Robert, Madame Reisz, and her father. While Edna sees support for herself in these roles the way the other characters see them, she does not believe t hat she has their support for herself as an individual, apart from these roles, or as a person defining these roles for herself. As she takes her final walk down to the beach, the sea continues to call to her soul The voice of the sea is seductive, never ceasing, whispering, clamoring, murmuring, inviting the soul to move in abysses of solitude (654). The sea has helped Edna see into her innermost being and the transformational journey has helped her realize that she wants to fulfill her roles in life as an autonomous individual. simply because Edna feels that she cannot achieve her goals, she succumbs to that which is closest to her innermost being, the sea.

Huck Finn :: essays research papers

Chapter 33huck meets gobbler Sawyer on the road and stops his carriage. turkey cock is frightened and thinks he is seeing a ghost, but Huck reassures him and they drop down(a) down. Huck then tells Tom what has happened at the Phelpss and Tom thinks about what they should do. He then tells Huck to return to the farm with his suitcase while he returns to the town and starts the trip over. Huck foils back and soon thereafter Tom arrives. The family is excited because they do not get very many visitors so they make Tom welcome. Tom makes up a whole written report about his hometown and then impudently kisses Aunt Sally right on the mouth. She is so shocked that she nearly hits him over the head with her spinning get at until Tom tells her that he is Sid Sawyer. Silas then explains that Jim revealed to him what a s bottomlanddal the Royal apotheosis really was. Silas says that he told the rest of the town, and he figures they leave behind ride the 2 cheats out of town that nig ht. Huck and Tom climb out of their windows in a last minute attempt to warn the Duke and King, but they argon likewise late. They see the two men being paraded through the track all covered in tar and feathers. Huck remarks that human beings can be awfully cruel to one another. Chapter 34Tom and Huck think about ways to break Jim out of his prison. Huck plans to get the raft, steal the key to the padlock, unlock the door and then float down the river some more. Tom tells him that plan is too simple and would work too well. Toms plan is much more elaborate and stylish, and takes a great cut across longer to implement. The boys go to the hut where Jim is being kept and search around. at last Tom decides that the best way, or at least the way that will take the longest, is to dig a hole for Jim to climb out of. The adjacent day he and Huck follow the black man who is delivering Jims food. Jim recognizes them and calls them by name, but both boys pretend not to have heard anything . When he has a chance, Tom tells Jim that they are going to dig him out. Jim is so beaming he grabs Toms hand and shakes it.

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

Comparing the Quest for Self in Jane Eyre and Villete Essay -- compari

Quest for Self in Jane Eyre and Villete Why is Villette so disagreeable? Because the writers mind contains nothing but hunger, rebellion and rage. Matthew Arnold, 1853. Matthew Arnold was certainly extrospective about the defects of both(prenominal) Charlotte Brontes mind and of her novel. Indeed he was not all in his chemical reaction to her Anne Mozley in The Christian Remembrancer in April 1853 wrote in reaction to Brontes other great work of rebellion, Jane Eyre, that she had to make a balk against the outrages on decorum, the moral perversity, the toleration, nay, indifference to vice which deform her picture of a desolate woman (my italics). Mozley even went far enough to label Jane Eyre a dangerous book, a sentiment which Arnolds comments show that he shared. Yes both Villette and Jane Eyre are pervaded by hunger, rebellion and rage but it is this very actor which allows Brontes protagonists to explore their own identities in, crucially, their own terms. That both Jane Eyre and Villette are first psyche narratives is highly important. Unlike Catherine Earnshaw, Maggie Tulliver and Isabel Archer, Lucy Snowe and Jane Eyre are able to fixate their own stories, and subsequently, to define themselves. As Tony Tanner stated, Janes narrative act is not so a great deal one of retrieval as of establishing and maintaining her identity and this can easily be extended to Lucy. Indeed in Villette the importance of language to proclaim identity, and thus power, is demonstrated by Lucys inability to enunciate French when she arrives in Villette I could say nothing whatever. Of course the role of teaching Lucy to speak French falls to M. Paul demonstrating the masc... ...ion and rage. BBIBLIOGRAPHY The Brontes The Critical Heritage, ed. Miriam Allott (1974). Person, Narrative and Identity in Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre, Tony Tanner in Teaching the Text ed. S Kappeler. Jane Eyres home(a) Design, Karen Chase in Jane Eyre (Ne w Casebook), ed. Heather Glenn. Introduction to Villette (Penguin,1979), Tony Tanner. The Buried carriage of Lucy Snowe and A Dialogue of Self and Soul Plain Janes Progress in The Mad Woman in the Attic, Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar (2000). Charlotte Bronte as a Freak Genius, David Cecil in Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyreand Villette (A Casebook Series) ed. Miriam Allot. Three Womens Texts and a Critique of Imperialism, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak in The Feminist contributor ed. Catherine Belsey and Jane Moore (1997).

Executive Summary Of Pepsico :: essays research papers

Executive Summary of PepsicoThrough my research of Pepsico, I have reason the cost of capital. Afirms cost of capital is imperative because it represents the funds use tofinance the firms assets and operations. First you have to estimate the costof capital in order to minimize it.In estimating the cost of capital, you first have to pose the cost ofeach capital dowery and then combine the component costs to find the weightedaverage cost of capital. First, I metrical the cost of debt. Pepsicos nonplusconsisted of 7 5/8 coupon rate, maturing in 1998 at a monetary value of $1023.80. Ifigured the payments to be $38.15(.0763* kelvin/2). I then used my financialcalculator to find the stick around yield of 5.16% by entering in 1023.80=PV, 1000=FV, 2=N, 38.15=PMT. The bond was encryptd semi-annually, therefore I multiplied theanswer for I/Y times 2 to get 5.16%.The next timbre would be to calculate the preferred stock, however mystock had none. I then went to the third step of calcul ating cost of well-keptearnings. First I found the third growth grade which were historical, forecast,and sustainable growth. The historical and forecast annual rates I simplypulled directly from grade Line under medieval 10 years and estimated years of thedividends. They both were 14.0%. The sustainable growth is metric bytaking the retention rate (b) and multiplying it by the return on equity (r ).To find b, I first calculated the dividends payout ratio which is DPS/EPS. Ipulled DPS and EPS from value line under 1997. thence to find the retention rate,I subtracted the ratio from 1. Next, I calculated r, by taking net income anddividing it by net worth. These figures I also pulled from Value Line. My b=.352, and r=28.68%. Then the third growth rate was 10.10(.352*28.68).Still calculating the cost of retained earnings, I then calculated mycash melts by the discounted cash flow approach. For the first three cash flows,I took the dividend of the stock over the price of the stock , and then added thegrowth rate to it. My first cash flow equaled to 15.38%, southward was also 15.38%,and the third one was 11.45%. To find the cash flow four, I used the CAPMapproach. This formula is Ks=Krf + (Km-Krf)bs. I found beta on Value Linewhich was .95. The risk free rate was found by obtaining the flow yield on a20yr. T-bond from the Wall Street Journal. It equaled 6.60%. The Km-Krf wasfound in the book, and equaled 7.

Tuesday, March 19, 2019

Red Badge of Courage - The Power of Fear Exposed Essay -- The Red Badg

Power of Fear Exposed in The Red Badge of braveness The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane, is a book based on a three-year-old spends engagement in the cultivated War. The psychological negate that he faces throughout the story is both natural and external. The employments are fought in the referees face to show the young soldiers conflict with himself, other soldiers, and the battle itself. With Stephen Cranes amazing proponent of description, the reader becomes engulfed in the battle at hand and feels that the conflicts of the soldiers are beseeming his own. The main topic of the book is fear, and how it would affect a young gentleman in a bloody war such as the civilised War. The war becomes the young soldiers worst nightmare, which gives him conflicting thoughts, emotions and fears. The young character in brief realizes, as all of these things affect him activatedly and physically, that the war is very antithetical from what he had hoped it was going to be. Although the soldier becomes nervous and even runs away at the Battle of Chancellorsville, he eventually returns to find that he and his fellow soldiers piss grown. They had learned more about themselves then they had ever believed possible. The young soldier becomes a man with plenty of courage by the end of this book. When we beginning(a) meet total heat with his regiment, the 304th New York, he is bored and even lonesome, wishing to return to the farm. As time passes at the camp, Henry begins to realize that creation a hero in the war may not be as easy as he had once dreamed. The intimate conflict begins with Henry wondering about how he will react when the battle begins. He wonders whether he will run like a chicken, or stay a fight bravely. In the first battle Henry fights bravely, but as time goe... ...en Crane as well uses his powerful descriptions in the parts of the book where the character is fighting battles. He puts the reader in the face of the enemy and descr ibes to them every last detail, making the reader spang what every detail was like. If Crane had made the battles any less dramatic, the reader would have had a hard time following what Henry was having an emotional conflict about. Since Crane put you right there in the battle, you also felt the way that Henry felt. Stephen Crane used the young soldiers inner and outer battles to give the reader a true idea of what the civilized War must have been like. The reader will visualize the battles, olfaction the gunpowder, hear the guns, and sense everything else that happens throughout the book due to Cranes use of description. The reader even begins to feel and sympathize with Henrys emotions and feelings.

The Ambiguity of Shakespeares Ambiguous Hamlet Essay -- Shakespeare H

Ambiguity of hamlet In Shakespeares dramatic catastrophe Hamlet, the reader finds ambiguity of one type and another here and there throughout the play. The protagonist himself is an especially ambiguous character is his own rite. Harold rash in the Introduction to Modern Critical Interpretations Hamlet expounds on the ambiguity and mysterious conduct of the hero during the final act When Horatio responds that Claudius will check shortly from, presumably that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been executed, Hamlet rather ambiguously my italics makes what capacity be read as a final vow of retaliation It will be short. The interim is mine. And a mans keeps no more than to say one. (2) The play begins with the changing of the sentinels on a guard platform of the castle of Elsinore in Denmark. Recently the phantasmal likeness of dead King Hamlet has appeared to the sentinels for no definite purpose. this evening the ghost appears again, for no apparent reason, to Barnard o, Marcellus and Horatio, a very close virtuoso of Hamlet. Horatio and Marcellus exit the ramparts of Elsinore intending to enlist the aid of Hamlet, who is home from school, dejected by the oerhasty marriage of his mother to his uncle less than two months after the funeral of Hamlets father (Gordon 128). There is a social gathering of the court, where Claudius pays tribute to the retentiveness of his deceased brother, the former king, and then, along with Queen Gertrude, conducts some items of business, for example dispatching Cornelius and Voltemand to Norway to gruntle the Fortinbras affair, addressing Polonius and Laertes on the subject of the latters return to school abroad. Hamlet is present at the court gat... ...est Young Aristocrat. Readings on Hamlet. Ed. dupe Nardo. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Masks of Hamlet. Newark, NJ Univ. of Delaware P., 1992. Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Techno logy. 1995. http//www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html No line nos. West, Rebecca. A Court and World Infected by the Disease of Corruption. Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Court and the Castle. New Haven, CT Yale University Press, 1957. Wright, Louis B. and Virginia A. LaMar. Hamlet A Man Who Thinks sooner He Acts. Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Ed. Louis B. Wright and Virginia A. LaMar. N. p. Pocket Books, 1958.

Monday, March 18, 2019

James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man :: James Joyce Portrait Artist Young Man Papers

James Joyces A Portrait of the mechanic as a Young Man James Joyces novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) is all concerned with the development of its main case, Stephen Dedalus. By comparison with Joyces earlier version, Stephen ace 1, we see that he has cut out all extraneous poppycock concerning other characters, and presented a close and detailed account of the development of Stephens character from infancy to young manhood, the ground previously covered in Stephen adept being compressed into Chapter 5 of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. The most important aspects of Stephens early development go on internally, and Joyce takes us right inside his mind so that we brook see the intellectual and emotional development going on basis the surface. The first chapter portrays Stephen as an individual alienated from his social environment, and experiencing encounters with authorities which allow for reappear in various guises passim the book. We see the b eginnings of this process in the first page and a half, and the patterns of behaviour and relationships sh take in here are tell throughout the chapter. This opening section is almost a microcosm of the chapter and perhaps of the whole novel. Stephen has an intuitive drive towards rebellion. As a young child he plans to marry a Protestant girl from his neighbourhood, and when his fetch and Aunt Dante knock him for this he defiantly hides under the table. This instinctive drive stays with him throughout the book, until, in the fifth and final chapter, he presents his defiant attitude in mature intellectual terms with his statement I will not fare . . . (p.247)Stephens rebellious attitude is necessary in order for him to preserve his own beliefs and values in the face of authorities which try to make him conform, unless there is also a strong flavour of martyrdom roughly his attitude which is shown in an early fantasy in which Stephen identifies himself with the Irish politico Charles Parnell. We are also reminded of this throughout the book when we remember that Joyce chose the name Stephen to dude him with Stephen the first Christian martyr.The first authorities Stephen encounters are father, mother, Dante, and Uncle Charles. He associates his mother with a nice smell, and his relationship with her might be described as one of artistic response she plays the piano and he dances.

Letter To The Author Of I, Rigoberta Menchu :: essays research papers

Dear Rigoberta MenchuI have recently read your autobiography I, Rigoberta Menchu, in which your portrayed as an oppressed yet ultimately triumphant victim of classism, racism, colonialism, and of course sexism. In your book you talk rough your family, a Quiche Indian family, which was very poor. The small plot of grease that the family owned did non bewilder enough to feed everyone. Life on a plantation was harsh.People lived in crowded sheds with no clean water or toilets. Your people, the native Indians in Guatemala had no rights of citizenship. You were restricted to people of Spanish descent and were, therefore, vulnerable to abuses by those in power."We are maintenance in a troubled military man, in a time of great uncertainty. Its a time to reflect about many things, especially about humankind as a whole, and the residual between collective and individual values". This is something you have mentioned and something that I in all agree with. Indigenous people ar e among the most victims of terrible cabalistic repression and violation of the law in many parts of the world.The atrocities that you wrote about in your book are both compelling and heartbreaking. Though, I have not limited myself there, I have investigated further your story. I searched the Internet several(prenominal) times about your book, story, and life what I found amazed me. I read articles stating that your book I, Rigoberta Menchu is falsely chronicled. "A recounted in your autobiography, the story of Rigoberta Menchu is the gouge of classic Marxist myth. According to your book you came from a poor Mayan family, living on margins of a country from which had been dispossessed by Spanish conquistadors. Their descendents, cognise as Ladinos, try to drive the Menchus and other Indian peasants off claimed land that they had cultivated. As said in your book, you are illiterate and were kept from having an cultivation by your peasant father, Vicente. He refuses to send y ou to school because he take to work in the fields, and because he is afraid that the school will moment his daughter against him. From the articles I found on the Internet it has been proven that you went to a private institution, and that your family wasnt as poor as to the point of starvation.You make these linkages plain "My personal experience is the reality of a whole people". It is a call to people of good will all over the world to help the noble but powerless indigenous peoples of Guatemala and other ternion World countries to gain their rightful inheritance.

Sunday, March 17, 2019

Essay example --

In literature there are some(prenominal) separate to a successful story. What appears to be the main themes within a peculiar(prenominal) text whitethorn in incident be completely different, or interpreted in another expression. As with many successful full treatment what happens in the background may be more interesting or noteworthy than that of which happens in the foreground. Those happenings may also control the outcome, or all the same the whole of the tale. In Sir Gawain and the Green dub, Such a circumstance may be in effect. Unlike in various other texts of that time, many of the females portrayed in the poem are unlike how they were supposed to be in that era. Through their actions, it is the women that control the story and thus guide it from its bouldered start to its wild conclusion. This is shown through doll Bertilaks actions towards Sir Gawain, Morgans boilers suit hand in the charade, and the symbols and actions of the main men within the text.Perhaps the intimately relevant point to make is Morgans hand in the plot. At the end of the poem the readers learn from the Green Knight that the entire patch is set up by Morgan. Essentially, the entire story rides on the fact that Morgan dislikes Guinevere and wishes to both scare her (Possibly to death) and humiliate Arthur and his knights. Without this malice towards Guinevere, there would be no poem to begin with. Morgan sets up the conflict by enchanting lord Bertilak and ordering him to do as she bids, going to Arthur and his knights and posing the challenge to them. This proves the billet Morgan holds over the men, as she is the one in control. This may be combatted with the assertion that she plays the part of the evil witch and thus plays into one of the many stereotypes of women in that time. Dr. Shadi Neimneh and associates ... ...t necessarily the ones holding the reins. Throughout the poem Morgan and Lady Bertilak transform the twain main men at their will, Morgan turning L ord Bertilak into The Green Knight, and Lady Bertilak stealing Sir Gawains masculinity. They control everything from the beginning scene in which the Green Knight entices King Arthurs court, to Sir Gawains presence in Lord Bertilaks estate, all the way to the very end when their deeds are revealed and they send Sir Gawain back to Arthur with the demeaning girdle tied firmly around him. Morgan may not befuddle fully achieved her desire to mock King Arthur and falsify his knights, but with the combine efforts of Lady Bertilak and Lord Bertilak, she is able to shame Sir Gawain and teach him humility that he spreads throughout the kingdom. In the end, it is the women who earn the greatest importance in the quest, and the poem.