Thursday, November 28, 2019

Hewlett-Packard The flight of the Kittyhawk case study Essay Example

Hewlett-Packard: The flight of the Kittyhawk case study Paper Although, in its conceptual phase Spenner envisioned the Kittyhawk to be a disruptive technology, what they really created was a sustaining innovation for a disruption that had not occurred yet. In order for the Kittyhawk to be considered a disruptive technology, it needed to acquire a different market than current disk drives were targeting or manufacture the smaller disk at a with such a cost structure that no other could attain their price. In the outset Spenner intended to develop a cheap small drive. With an enormous potential market, the development team sought out these opportunities and addressed the market needs per industry. In the development phase, faced with having to perform the team opted to go further up-market for their product introduction to PDAs. An emerging technology itself, the full needs of this market were not yet identified. When the software needed more memory the Kittyhawk team went further up market to subnotebook computers in their urgency to find a market for the product they had developed. 2. Name strength and a weakness related to the way HP structured and supported the Kittyhawk development team. We will write a custom essay sample on Hewlett-Packard: The flight of the Kittyhawk case study specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Hewlett-Packard: The flight of the Kittyhawk case study specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Hewlett-Packard: The flight of the Kittyhawk case study specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer One of the strengths in the way HP structured and supported the Kittyhawk development team was separating this team from the mainstream development. This allowed for a flexible, dynamic and cohesive team, bringing only those on board that really felt the mission could succeed. Thus the team was able to speed up development and meet such stringent deadlines on product development. Its greatest weakness was that the tight deadlines and financial expectations by mainstream corporate caused overwhelming focus on developing a product with higher profits. This meant the product needed to address features of a higher end market. Had the team allowed itself more time and not had the financial expectations placed on them, they may have come up with different development parameters and possibly stuck to their original creed I am going to build a small, dumb, cheap disk drive. In their quest to attain certain financial parameters the team sacrificed performance, features and cost. Although separated from the mainstream, this innovation was expected to perform at levels equal to or better than products within the mainstream organization, so in reality they were only physically removed from the HP culture. Had they focused on where the immediate market opportunities were they may have decided to first develop a small, dirt-cheap drive for the gaming market. Then sustained this innovation with more memory and finally equipped it with impact sensing technology for the higher end willing to pay for the additional technology. 3. What do you think of the way the team set out to find a market for the Kittyhawk? What correct turns, and what wrong turns did they make? Spenner identified a need in the market, a small cheap disk drive. It did not need to have more capacity than current disk drives. It needed to be used in smaller simpler technologies that did not require as much memory. The team set out to find the market in all the right places. They identified a slew of applications that the Kittyhawk could be applied to. Two different functions were identified as key features for the drive to have, impact resistance and a cheap drive (note not cost per megabyte). In identifying the different applications that each market could use, the original idea became more complex and larger than the outset. Performance features were added and in their urgency to launch the product one of the key functions of the drive was sacrificed: cost. 4. What do you think are the root causes of the failure of the Kittyhawk program? The root cause of the failure of the Kittyhawk program was that although placed outside the mainstream organization, it was still expected to perform as a product within the mainstream organization. Had the urgency to meet financial expectations not been as high, the development team may have focused more on the key job-to-do that the market was expecting from the drive instead of searching for a market that would meet the financial expectations placed on the Kittyhawk.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Land of Opportunity Essays - Human Migration, Nationality Law

The Land of Opportunity Essays - Human Migration, Nationality Law The Land of Opportunity From research proposal (to keep focused) There should be laws and policies that allow people to come here and make them productive individuals that contribute to society. My initial thinking is that if there is a way to let people into this country, and they can benefit from what we have here, but not in their country, then we should let those people come here. At this point, I can see myself arguing to let people into the country, but there must be arguments as to why this is such an issue for keeping people out of this country, I think the difficulty will be in deciding which side I am really for, to allow people into this country or to prevent entrance, and if I agree with the laws in place. Beginning of Essay 5 The United States has been referred to as The Land of Opportunity for many years. Because of this, people have wanted to come to the United States to visit, to live, to survive and to be happy and have a good life. There are many people each year however, who are prevented from accessing this great land, and are prohibited from staying here. These are the people who try to migrate into the United States, but do so illegally, and are then termed illegal immigrants. When these people are caught, they are deported back to their own countries, and not allowed to have the luxuries that someone who is naturally born into this country should have. There are several factors that go into immigration laws and policies, and that shape our country, among them for example family history, amount of population and contribution to the United States. These factors, among others are what make this nation what it is, or what it isnt, and how those factors help to shape us are interesting points to pond er. A persons family, as it relates to the United States could be current or past history. America happens to be a country comprised mainly of immigrants, from the European countries, over to this land to formulate this country. For that reason, there are a lot of people who continued to migrate here, after their families came to this country, for whatever the reasons were. Some were forced to come here, and others chose to come here. The immigration laws and policies are clear when it comes to current residents of the United States. If you were born here, in the U.S., you are what are considered a U.S. Citizen, and none of the immigration laws and policies applies to you, as they would to foreign born people. However, there are others in your family who may have to apply to become U.S. Citizens. Your spouse or child, if born outside of the U.S. may become a citizen after a certain number of years of marriage or living in the U.S. through naturalization. There are ways of claiming and fi ling for citizenship if you have a parent that was born in the U.S. or if you are married to a U.S. Citizen. For married people, the laws states that you have to have been married for 3 years and prove that you have lived in the U.S. continuously for 18 months. In addition to this, you must be able to speak, read, and write in the English language, and you have to be able to state that you will uphold the constitution of the U.S. You must report all income on your taxes, and if you are a male between the ages of 18 to 26, you must register for the Selective Service, to fight for this country if there was ever a time that it would come to that. If all of these eligibility requirements were met, in some form or another that confirms to the criteria being met, then the laws would be in your favor for you becoming another U.S. citizen. Being another U.S. Citizen is one of many people. In the U.S. as of 2013, there were 316 million people, of the 7 billion people on the planet. In 2012, there were approximately 41 million of those people who are immigrants into the U.S. This

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Radiobiology of proton therapy, heavy ion therapy and neutron therapy Essay

Radiobiology of proton therapy, heavy ion therapy and neutron therapy - Essay Example For example, tumor cells often lack the necessary mechanisms required to effectively repair radiation damages. Despite the relative efficacy, safety and reliability of most conventional radiation modalities one of the key problems associated with many photon beams therapies is how to deliver an ideal dose that will kill all the tumor cells without affecting the surrounding normal tissues. However, this is often difficult to achieve due to the unavoidable deposition of radiation dose at the point of radiation entrance (Durante and Loeffler, 2010, p.42). The therapeutic application of charged particle energy beams began in 1946 after the discovery of the radiobiological properties of proton beams. Since then, the use of particle beam radio therapy procedures such as proton therapy, heavy ion therapy and neutron therapy is increasingly gaining importance in therapeutic radiobiology particularly in the treatment of diseases such as cancer (Cunha, 2010, p.1505). The delivery of the radiat ion in sessions (fractionation) in particle beam therapy also ensures that the target cells are destroyed while the surrounding normal tissues are able to repair themselves. This is particularly attributed to their characteristic physical depth-dose distribution ability that ensures maximum high precision impact on the target tumor cells. Compared to the conventional photon radiotherapy, the use of high energy beams of charged protons, neutrons and heavy ions provides significant advantages particularly in the treatment of deep localized tumors. For example, treating cancerous or tumor cells using beams of charged particles allow a more precise approach than most of the conventional radiotherapy modalities. This consequently shortens the treatment time while at the same time minimizing the irradiation of the surrounding disease free tissues. This paper critically analyzes the radiobiology of proton therapy, heavy ion therapy and neutron therapy as well as their potential benefits an d limitations. Figure 1: Comparative lateral penumbra for photons, protons and heavy ions (carbon ions) Proton Therapy Proton beam radiotherapy is increasingly being used due to its numerous potential physical and radiobiological advantages over the conventional radiotherapy techniques. According to Schulz-Ertner and Tsujii (2007, p.954), protons are particularly preferred as a radio therapy option due to their distinct depth –dose profile which makes them particularly suitable for therapeutic use in deep seated, localized and radioresistant tumors. Although the use of proton therapy for tumor treatment is currently a well established therapeutic modality in many parts of the world, the application of other heavy ions and neutrons is still restricted to a few medical facilities due to the potential dangers associated with such high energy beams. Proton particle therapy works by directing energetic ionizing particles such as protons, neutrons or heavy ions towards the target t umor cells. The particles then damage the DNA of the target cells thereby causing their ultimate death. The radiation induced cell death is primarily caused by the damage to the nuclear materials due to secondary electron production. For example, particle beams such as protons often deposit their energy at higher linear energy transfer (LET) compared to electromagnetic radiation (Fokas et al., 2009, pp.224). The dose deposited in the surrounding tissues is one of the most important aspects of particle beam

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Strategic management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 10

Strategic management - Essay Example These three important statements serve as a track or guideline and assist each and every individual to work in a way that not only conforms to what organization is intended to do and has stated, but also leads toward successful completion of tasks in a distinctive way. Before getting into the discussion of strategic development it is important to understand the meaning of strategy. According to Dobson et al (2004), it is about achieving competitive advantage through distinctiveness- delivering a unique value addition to the customers, and having a clear view of how to position yourself uniquely in your industry. In order to make the concept clear I will shed light on Red Bull; a famous energy drink on which a lot of work was done in order to tactically develop proper and advantageous market strategies. To tailor this product according to the diverse needs of individuals, they positioned the drink as an energy drink coupled with adventurous advertisements and sponsorship of famous sports known as formula 1 (F1). Whenever an organization plans to make any strategy, it needs to carry out an analysis in a way that not only takes into account the strength and weaknesses of the organization but also the environmental factors that might act as a stimulator or may hinder their performance (Joyce and Woods 2001). This analysis is very much useful and is mandatory to be carried out. Red Bull saw growth potential in western markets and launched their product by making changes in the old THAI product. However, while launching their product they had to face few limitations as well. There was a huge criticism regarding the Red Bull energy drink in terms of its ingredients. When the product was first launched it took about 3 years for the approval of its sales in Austria, however, Hungary became its first foreign market in 1992. The exotic nature of its ingredients was one of the reasons

Monday, November 18, 2019

Marketing in Fashion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Marketing in Fashion - Essay Example The essay "Marketing in Fashion" concerns the fashion marketing. Marketing research is a primary strategy used by marketers to assess the market environment and the customer-mix and to learn the customers’ needs. A shop-window provides 24-hour advertising and creates and identity for the shop. Using celebrities as models has also been a successful marketing strategy. Advertising has always been an effective marketing strategy for fashion clothing. Creating and using catchy terminology to describe fashion apparel is a recent and effective trend in fashion marketing. PR events such as press and commercial events play a significant role in fashion marketing communications. Meeting sociological needs of the people like overweight, age and utility is an emerging trend. An example is the marketing of designer clothes for plus-size women. Building customer relationships can help create new customers and keep the old ones. A well-recognised brand name is the most valuable asset of any business. This can increase customer loyalty in the short term as well as retain substantial value long term. Lastly and most importantly, assuring employees that the organisation values their input is important for the success of any campaign.Marketing fashion is a process that ensures that the products, from the producers’ hands, reach the consumers’ hands by motivating the consumer to buy the products. However, marketers cannot coerce customers into buying and this is especially true for the fashion industry as evidenced.... Lastly and most importantly, assuring employees that the organisation values their input is important for the success of any campaign. FASHION MARKETING: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 1. Introduction Marketing fashion is a process that ensures that the products, from the producers' hands, reach the consumers' hands by motivating the consumer to buy the products. However, marketers cannot coerce customers into buying and this is especially true for the fashion industry as evidenced by the failure of the Woolworths womenswear retail chain (Bohdanowicz & Clamp 1994, p.2). Marketers of fashion will have to consider all factors that influence the industry to ensure successful reception of products. While consumer preferences and utility would be the main factors to be considered while marketing fashion, with the increasing popularity for green products, social marketing strategies will have increased significance in fashion marketing in the coming decades. This report aims to analyse all marketing issues including those relating to the market environment, consumer behaviour and consumer relationships, marketing research, promotions like shop-window dressing, advertising, fashion shows , using celebrities as models, advertising, advertising jargons, creating brand equity, PR events, etc., sociological needs and staff involvement. Marketing tools like brochures, catalogues, press kits, look books, etc. have not been included in the report as they are routine and general, and do not have any specific use in fashion marketing in particular. 2. Market environment In the fashion industry, the external environment poses several challenges to marketing, which can be classified as

Friday, November 15, 2019

Factors Affecting Global Advertising Strategies

Factors Affecting Global Advertising Strategies CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This project will analyse how global advertising is affected by numerous problems and what global advertising strategies can be undertaken by multi-national companies. The project will start with an introduction to global advertising and related literature, theories which present the basis of the review. Then, the methods of collecting data and sources will take place such as how the data was gathered and evaluated. Furthermore, with analysis of all relevant outcomes, a conclusion will be drawn. The reason why Kinetic, Turkey, was chosen as a case study is because it has been operating as an advertising company in different countries under different names. In addition, advertising is facing many issues in Turkey and this will provide a better insight to the problems of international advertising such as how the company copes with these issues. Background In the global advertising phenomena, most businesses are keen to expand their brand of products into a market place that is becoming increasingly competitive, an unstoppable debate over the effectiveness of global advertising of products is still continuing. The idea began towards the late twentieth century and gained immense popularity among business communities as the sound of global recognition is a music to anyones ears. It does have some challenges for business men all over the world. Among them is the issue of language, culture to name a few (Andros, 2000). Global advertising involves distribution of a commercial message to target customers in other countries. Individuals differ from country to country which affects the way of how they recognize symbols, react to emotional appeals by considering the intensity of literacy and languages spoken. The structure of advertising function also shows difference. For instance, on the one hand, advertising decisions and budgets are centralized, and specific numbers of worldwide agencies are used by international organisations. On the other hand, organisations can decentralize the decisions and budgets and use the local advertising agencies. Therefore,global advertising is a communication process as a result of existing in different cultures that have different values, communication styles, and consumption patterns. Global advertising can be also seen as a business practice with advertisers and the advertising agencies which generate advertisements and buy media in other states Douglas Craig, (1995) . It is difficult to communicate to a target audience in global markets as communication process passes through in numerous contexts and it varies because of language, literacy, and other cultural influences. Douglas Craig, (2002) propose that there are three different stages are taken place in the process of the communication in global markets. First of all, the advertiser determines the appropriate message for the target audience. Then, to understand the message in different cultural contexts, it is encoded. Finally, the message is ready to be sent through the media channels to the customers who then interpret and respond to the message. However cultural factors can create barriers in these steps in the process of message and communication breaks may occur. Efficiency of message is affected by the cultural context. The context where information is implanted is significant in the collectivist cultures such as Japan and China (Hall, (1976). Conversely, the information is embedded in verbal messages in low context cultures such as Western societies where they only expect whether information relating to the product or service is enough to meet with their expectations for content (De Mooij, 1998). However, image and mood appeals affect individuals easily in high context cultures where they depend on personal networks for information and content. To provide effective communication, it is important to understand these differences in communication techniques. Global advertising can be also considered as business progress when a company introduce its product or services to customers in other countries. An appropriate message is determined by an advertising agency, which also build the media placement. While deciding global advertising strategy, awareness of developing an international or local ad campaign, or tailor communication to differences in home markets (Peebles and Ryans 1984). A standardized international campaign is often preferred to build a strong corporate or global image. Local campaigns are chosen if the purpose is to release a new product or build a new brand, or to differentiate the product or brand from competitors. In 2006, Coca-Cola Company failed when the company launched the campaign of Coke Side of Life, and it only provided simple messages with universal appeal. Coca-Cola used more regional approach rather than using a global marketing campaign (Summerfield, 2002). After this failure the organisation started to use its global resources to run a multi-media and multi-cultural strategy in worldwide markets. The firm has a better understanding of its local connections in which they market their products (Coca-Cola Company News Release, 2006). Altstie and Grow (2006) believes that there are many advantages of standardization. One of the main advantages of standardization is local marketplace. As a brand takes a part in the process of decision-making especially supported by local professionals then it will help to increase the level of local acceptance easily. Having looked at the advantages of standardization, the other effect of it can be observed as off-target advertisements always provide support when there meets an increase related to cultural approach. Moreover, Altstie and Grow (2006) mention it is clear to say that culturally respectful and strategically bound advertising can often be highly successful. Another advantage of standardization is abating the rate of making cultural blunders. When choosing an advertising firm to take care of global promotional needs, companies should consider: the available budget; the promotional message; the complexity of the product or service; market size and location; distribution channels; life cycle and competition (Proctor 2000, pp.227-228). It is vital to use an advertising agency which specializes in that type of campaign as the company operating global. McAllister (1997, p. 39) explains why it is more prudent to use global campaigns. There are many advantages of an international campaign such as building a strong and consistent global image for the company or its products and services across world markets and building awareness by using the same image in other countries. Moreover, utilization of a single campaign reduces the costs and productions in copy development. On the other hand, use of various regional campaigns may create repetition and lead to incoherent brand images and bewilderment in target audiences over the globe. To start with, it is essential to identify the term of global advertising, which has been used for advertising universal brands, such as Marlboro cigarettes, Coca-Cola, Sony home electronics and Gucci accessories. For instance, Jones (2000) argues that if a brand is exactly the same in every way in the countries where it is represented, then this term can be called as global. However there are numerous brands are available; the numbers of truly brands are not that many. For example, Coca-Cola and Pepsi frequently do with some a few changes to contain local norms, tastes, and preferences, but Levis jeans that are very much a global upon the country. In the current economic scenario, many economists as well as media people are predicting that a competition among businesses might resemble the initial stages of E-Commerce when it was not well known. There are pieces of research that have addressed the question of price rivalry on the Internet. Examine price patterns with the competition and their pros and cons for the customer segment, where do they excel and where do they lack in traditional bricks and mortar retail settings (Frasier, 2002) According to Keegan and Green, 2008, United States was the country where advertising industry spent $250 billion whereas they spent half a billion dollars for the world in 2003. In addition to this information, in total over a trillion dollars was spent for various kinds of promotions. The existing literature shows that General Motors spent only %2 of its sales for advertising while Unilever spent %3.2. However, 2 percent of total sales of General Motors which was equal to 3.7 billion dollars were more than double of Unilever expense. $1.6 billion spent for advertising by Unilever. As a whole, in 2003, nearly $100 billion was spent for advertising by the market leaders. However the following statistics shows that global advertising expenditures highly declined as a result of economic crisis. According to Zenith forecasts of 2006, the credit crunch has a negative effect on consumers and organisations in North America and Western Europe from 4.4% to 3.8%, however there is a growth in the rest of the world from 10.9% to 11.1%. TNS Media Intelligence states that U.S. total measured advertising spending dropped 14.3 percent vs. in the first six months of 2009 to $60.87 billion and advertising expenditures during the second quarter of 2009 which was less than last year. The only media increase was internet in the first half of 2009. Zenith forecasts (2006) showed that the top companies such as Verizon Communication, Procter Gamble, ATT, Sprint Nextel, Johnson Johnson, General Motors, General Electric, News Corp., Time Warner and Walt Disney in the first six months of 2009 spent combined total of $7,866.4 million, spending decreased by 3.5 percent compare to last year. As creating the multinational advertising campaigns, not only political and legal forces, but also economic factor needs to be taken into account. Definition of Problem With a better understanding of the adaptation of global advertisements to local environments, the factors which have influence on global advertisements and the strategies can be generated by global companies against to these barriers will be addressed. Aims and Objectives The project will analyse how global advertising is affected by language, culture, colours, numbers and images, religion, education, country image, political and legal forces, production and cost limitations, and global advertising strategies undertaken by multi-national companies. To come to the main point, one ad needs to apply to everyone and their understanding concurrently. The ultimate goal is the adaptation of a global advert which attracts customers attention to the highest point to generate the purchase process. In this study, the analysis of how effectively global advertising can be adopted by different and changing backgrounds in Turkey has been examined. Furthermore, how successfully advertising firms do research as well as market their product and services within other countries to expand globally will be taken into account. Structure of Study The research consists of five different chapters: Chapter 1 presents the background global advertising, and indicates aims, objectives and the structure of the study. This chapter also includes some relevant examples and judgments to the literature review. Chapter 2 provides review of relevant literature describing the challenges of global advertising with theoretical concepts and various examples of many organisations from books and journal articles. Chapter 3 contains the research and data collection methods in detail including both primary and secondary data as well as analysis of data and sampling methods. Besides, reasons of selected research methods and how they were used are explained. Chapter 4 gives a critical evaluation of data gathered from interviews with relevant justification, discussions and judgements. The aims and objectives set in the introduction have been addressed. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the main findings with conclusions and recommendations from both literature review and interview. Additionally, directions for the future study are indicated in this chapter. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Globalisation During the last decade, organisations have been launched internationally to expand the size of the business and survive in the competitive environment as a result of global competition and to gain global demand for their products. Globalisation has been defined as the homogenization of peoples wants and demands around the globe thanks to easy access of different products (Hammond, Grosse, 2003, p. 288). Organisations have expanded into different markets with the development of communication technology and the communication among countries has become easier for mass media via internet and satellite television broadcast. With high technology, managers can directly access the firms and solve any problem that might exist in other countries (Johansson, 2006). The usage of television increased during the entire world as governments discontinued attempting to prevent TV access from their population in many states; the images publicized in this medium have really introduced existing cultures around the globe such as the public in Japan, Argentina, and Canada. Moreover, the Internet has driven the globalisation of products by removing the barriers which formerly preventing products from gaining more recognition around the world. The physical limitations separating countries are breached as a result of Internet. However it has extended the worldwide scope of products, the global branding strategy should actually be a local plan for each component market, as to apply a standard approach worldwide without considering local preferences and cultural differences is doomed to failure (Dennis Harris 2002, p.142). Global organisations need to consider such as the available budget, the promotional message, the complexity of the product or service, market size and location, distribution channels, life cycle and competition when selecting an agency to heed on global promotional needs (Proctor 2000, p.227-228). It is prudent to select the advertising company which specialized in that type of promotion when the organisation is operating globally McAllister (1997, p. 39). Global Advertising Global advertising challenges with a difficult task. An appropriate communication needs to be for any local market as campaigns also must be organized and controlling of expenses must be provided across the world. As a result of varying media, there will be a change in the possible channels of advertising (Hammond, Grosse, 2003). For business expansion, corporations have to consider many factors. Among these factors, the top most are language, culture, education, politics as well as economic environment (William and Cummins, 2008). Corporations that have been successful in implementing their business have done a great deal of homework in this regard as we see on their websites which are available in many languages, they also analyze the appropriate market for their product and look at the political stability of that particular country in order to make sure that their business is conducted properly (Boris, 2001). This has specially been observed in telecom and computer sector where we can now see just how successfully that have implemented their strategies to cross all the above mentioned hurdles. The product must be within the reach of a common man and they must spend an appropriate amount on advertising as to get the masses interested. Hype must be created to grab even more attention and the price/performanc e ratio of the final product must be in equilibrium (James Badger, 2004). On the other hand they do adjust rather poorly in organizations that need to change. Compensations must only be based on performance and the size of job in hand that must be focused on more promotion and in future striving to get an even bigger job (Murphy et al., 2005). The above mentioned can only be extracted when the company management decides to make a great relationship with the workforce. They must make them feel so comfortable as if they are dealing not just with workers but their own family members. Just like we all work for the benefits of our very own families, similarly they must motivate employees to such an extent that they are able to handle virtually any challenge that lies in the way of their organization (Parker, 2002). But in order to achieve this, they will have to give additional benefits and rewards coupled with bonuses to their employees at regular intervals. As discussed above a factor that unfortunately even today is under use of many organizations, is the seniority factor where they encourage their employees on the basis of seniority rather than performance. Organizations have already begun the transition from relatively simple spreadsheets to the IT based database technology as this process has advanced along with the technology (Vein Heflin, 2008). They can also use their brand name if it is well known to consolidate the quality and customer satisfaction by increased funding on re-structuring the pricing policies as well as present some significant discounts and combine them with a proactive marketing campaign (Vein Heflin, 2008). Although in many countries global advertising can be considered homogenous or not, media tools provide an easy access to a part of the world. While social and cultural differences can pose problems, a simple image of the products can remain in individuals mind; they gradually begin to participate in the global market. The aims of advertising in each country have to be identified by the advertisers. Global advertising management should begin with the evaluation of the position of advertising in each market and the accessibility of the other advertising media. Similarities in Advertising Harris Attour (2003, p. 160) expounded that International advertising standardisation refers to using a common approach (for example common advertising message) to promote the same product across national boundaries. The similarities in advertising can be justified by the following: consistent image and identity throughout the world, single coordination of the marketing mix, and cost-savings; Consistent Positioning Worldwide By having similar advertising, organisations are able to show their consistency and maintain their brand image worldwide. Doing so prevents confusion and distortion of the way frequent travellers perceive brands In other words, the company gain in consistency because it carries the same image everywhere. Smirnoff launched its pure thrill campaign showing distorted images becoming clear when viewed through the Smirnoff bottle; however the specific scenes change from one country to another to appeal to consumers with different assumption about what is thrilling. (Kiefer Carter, 2005, p. 105) Writing instrument common theme stresses Parker and Pen as synonymous. Personalisation of the advertisement can be made at the local level but always with a common theme (Advertising Age, 1984, p. 74). Levis in the early 1980s opted for a pattern advertising strategy, where the broad outlines of the campaign are given but the details not (Chase Bacot, 1981, p. 34). Cost Savings Achieved Through Standardisation The potential for economy of scale achieved through standardization is enormous. Many companies have made huge savings thanks to standardization. In fact, by having one company to design the international advertising strategy, companies not only have a tighter coordination amongst brands but also achieve huge savings. Many companies have benefited from the cost savings potential of uniform advertising campaigns. Coca Cola saved $90 million over 20 years by using McCann-Erickson to produce its worldwide commercials (De Mooij, 1997, p. 15). Challenges in International Advertising It is true that advertising seems to be consistent worldwide, however As Omar (2009, p. 374) noted:Although advertising principles do not vary from country to country, the objectives and methods employed may differ in different markets. As Anholt (2000, p. 8) predicted, it is important for international brands to act locally: International brands succeed when consumers in each market believe they are being spoken to by somebody who understands them, somebody who knows their needs and who talks and feels just as they do . His words give rise to a lot of questions, chief amongst them are: The kind of advertising which would work best in each market environment, the kind of advertisement to be avoided (Zandpour et al, 1994, p. 50). Kotler (1997, p. 309) pointed out that international advertising present challenges at four levels: What to say (message content), how to say it logically (message structure), how to say it symbolically (message format), and who should say it (message source) ? The following paragraphs discuss them in turn. Language These days, organisations are paying great attention on product names and slogans to use in other languages. Language is the foundation to cross cultural advertising. Language must be carefully checked for cultural feasibility as many companies have made big blunders in advertisements of their products. (Payne, 2007). The message needs to be expressed in one language. International advertising often means that, companies are advertising a product which has a name from a different language. Many companies have had difficulties marketing these products mainly because once translated it does not convey the same impression. Firms therefore have skilled interpreters and translators to remove the communication difficulties. Direct translations into other foreign languages often lose meaning and do not put forward the important points originally predicted. Colgate launched toothpaste named CUE; they introduced the product in France and it was a disaster because the word CUE in French is a slang expression for derriere. (De Mooij, 1997, p. 160) Baby food producer Gerber does not make the right impact in France since the word literally means to spew (De Mooij, 1997, p. 145). Mitsubishi failed to advertise their Pajero model in Spain because the word Pajero means masturbator in Spanish: definitely not the right impression. (Haig, 2003, p. 45) IBM had some difficulties in Argentina with its global slogan: Solutions for a small planet and had to fine-tune it to Solutions for a small world because the word Planet lacked the desired conceptual thrust (Haig, 2003, p. 105). Values Culture might be linked to ethnics, national groups, and an age group or to a country. Every individual gains their knowledge about their culture from the society or the group they belong to. Every country has it is own culture, eating, dressing habits change between countries men and women are not treated same everywhere. Culture varies between different levels, so when talking about it, it is important to be clear about the level to avoid confusion. An approach that is true at one level does not mean it is going to be right on another level. Pivotal to the issues faced by international promoters, is the problem of culture: advertising is more than words, it is made of culture (Anholt, 2000, p. 5). In other words, the content of the message should have a local touch. Culture is the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a community or population. Culture is also learned behaviour. It depends on the environment, not heredity; it is not biologically transmitted. (Keillor et al.2007, p.109) In 1997, De Mooij (p. 7) wrote that, Ideally effective advertising means that the values in the message match the values of the receiver. It is the culture of the consumer that should be reflected in advertising. This excerpt puts a lot of emphasis on the values of the targeted nation. Before launching an advertisement it is important to see whether the message conveyed will match with the values of the nation. In other words, culture is a very complex phenomenon and a challenge to firms that wish to market internationally. How does the firms product or service fit in with the foreign markets culture? How must it be adapted to fit? Every firm must take its own adjustment and adaptation to satisfy customer foreign customers. (Keillor et al., 2007 p. 109) Culture plays an important role in international market. It is complex, challenging and always a problem for companies which operate internationally. When a new product is launched, it is the responsibility of the firm to make sure that the product fits in the international market. If there are changes required to increase customer satisfaction, the firm must take the reasonable steps. Advertising reflects these wider systems of meaning: it reflects the way people think, what moves them, how they relate to each other, how they live, eat, relax, and enjoy themselves. All manifestations of culture, at different levels, are reflected in advertising. In order to analyze advertising as a manifestation of culture at the broader level, it must be understood that culture is expressed in several ways. The Sony Walkman is often thought to be unique because one can listen to music without being disturbed by others. However this contrasts with Akio Morita Ibuka co-founder of Sony Corporation: He wanted to listen to music without disturbing others (Morita et al., 1987, p. 89). This subtlety makes a huge difference in the formulation of the campaign. Muller sparked a lot of controversy with its self-centred campaign showing a mum depriving its child of the yoghurt with the caption: there is motherly love, and there is Muller love. (Kiefer Carter, 2005, p. 68). Haagen-Dazs was lambasted because of its advertisement which related ice cream to sex and presented it as a product for personal pleasure. It offended the Chinese who share all the good things (Kiefer Carter, 2005, p. 68). Values bear hugely on buyer behaviour especially at the problem recognition stage. People in different cultures have different motives to buy a good and it should be reflected in the message of the campaign. When companies advertise, they must consider a wider system of meaning because it reflects people in many ways for example the way they eat, move or think. Advertising reflects to all cultural expressions at different stages. It is important to understand that the culture can be expressed in more than a few ways to analyze advertising as a manifestation of culture. Hofstede (1980, p. 57) proposed four dimensions of national culture: Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. The model can be used in global marketing strategy. If culture has a large effect on customer behaviour, then firms need tools and techniques that analyze cultural differences, so that the firms can avoid the mistake of applying a policy which is not appropriate. Power distance is essentially used to categorise levels of inequality in organisations (Mullins, 2002, p. 25). High power distance countries are autocratic and in such countries, the employees are reduced to a mere condition of doers. Conversely, low power distance is favourable to a participative management. Uncertainty avoidance however, related to the tendency to minimise risks or ambiguous situations. Countries that score high in this area are risk-adverse, and they tend to follow proved methods and rely usually on bureaucracy. Individualism mirrors the extent to which individuals fitted in a group (Brewster, Sparrow, Vernon, 2007, p. 23). In other words, the cohesiveness amongst group members; countries with a high score can be branded egoistic and Nations with low levels of individualism are known for their social dimension. Masculinity is linked to the behaviour and patterns that prevail into a particular culture. In fact, a masculine oriented nation shines by aggressiveness, assertiveness, drive for succeed at all cost while a feminine orientation requires a much less nurturing approach. Later, an additional dimension, Confucian Dynamism (Bond, 1988, p. 8), was put forward. This dimension reflects the length of planning e.g. The Japanese plan for the long-term and this is the basis of their economic growth over the last few years. Conversely, the USA is short-term focused and the bottom line is generally the quarterly meeting. Hofstedes surveys which were carried around the world in 1980 with IBM employees was rather a methodical assessment of different cultures around the globe. Even though there has been changes in the world from the events that occurred in Eastern Europe and Russia cultural roots are much stronger. Hofstedes analysis has proved that countries can be explained in four different categories. The first one is individualism versus collectivism, in individualism cultures individual tend to look after themselves and close family members only in collectivism cultures individuals care more about the group. High and low power distance would be the second dimension the difference is countries with high power distance are less democratic and countries with low level of power distance are more democratic. Masculine and famine is the third on Hofstedes list which refers to equality between males and females in a society. Uncertainty avoidance which relates to self-assurance between individuals in a society is the last demission on Hofstedes list. If the society do not feel threatened from uncertainty avoidance, then that society is does not have any doubt about the future. The Role of Culture in Multinational Business Economic and physical environment are important to international firms but not as much as the cultural environment that has an exceptional importance in business. Because every country has a different culture they require a different approach. A strategy that is successful for a region might not be in another, to avoid failure right techniques and tools should be used. A company would be successful if they can manage the cultural environment and international organizations. So what kinds of problems arise from cultural diversity? The main problem seems to be the lack of knowledge about different cultures between individuals. Many companies are not clear about the cultures around the globe (Miroshnik, 2002). Cultural diversity causes problems, because firms usually over generalize techniques and strategies. Employees think that successful marketing strategies can be applied to more than one country, but this often results in failure. If a product has a naked image on the package, it may not be a problem in the western countries, but it will be highly criticized in Muslim world. It does not matter if it is a well-known art work or the companys logo, therefore firms must adapt well into local markets if they want to be successful (Miroshnik, 2002). Structure of the Message The structure of the message should be consistent with the culture. Hall (1976) argued that communication could take place in a high/low context. According to him, in low context communication there is the necessity to come up with all the background information. Conversely, high context cultures require a straight approach because everyone has all the background information. Because of the differences of context, Gudykunst Ting-Toomey (1988, p. 103) argued that there are fou

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

College Admissions Essay: What I Want from College :: College Admissions Essays

What I Want from College    My high school is completely project-based. We've designed restaurants, traveled to Mars, redone the trials of Exxon-Valdez and Bhopal, and had our own Olympics. All of our academic subjects integrate into the projects. In 11th grade, second trimester, the assignment was to build and maintain a utopian society on Mars. As part of the project, I was asked to define the value system of my group's utopia by ranking the importance of ten qualities that make a successful city, including health care, pollution, transportation, education, housing, entertainment, and others. I wondered how I would even begin.    I looked at my classmates, some of whom were talking, sleeping, or simply bored. Suddenly, I realized what my utopia would contain. Of course, my class's lapse in attention was only temporary. But what of those consistently apathetic students and tedious classes? What would happen if every student in the classroom were involved, inquisitive, and motivated?    And so, Edutopia, my utopia, solidified in my mind. Its first and foremost priority was that of an education, and not merely of a high school or undergraduate level. Students of Edutopia would have every opportunity to follow whatever educational pursuits they desired, on Mars. I set out to build a society that respected intellect. And throughout the next trimester, I did.    After my completion of the project, I re-examined my career and life goals. Before I discovered that Edutopia was my idea of paradise, I had never realized that education was so important to me. When I did, though, I decided to pursue a career in education.    Cornell University has all the resources I need to further develop my intellectual interests.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Chili’s Bar Essay

In the decision making process, it helps to look at all the information. This SWOT is comparing Chili’s restaurant to two of its competitors, Ruby Tuesday’s and Applebee’s. Company History Chili’s restaurants are part of the company, Brinker International Corporation. Chili’s Bar & Grill is a casual dining restaurant that was founded in 1975 and has expanded to include 1,200 restaurants located domestically and internationally. There menu consists of fresh and healthy American dishes and limited amount of southwestern style Mexican dishes. In the last 30 years, Chili’s has created an identifiable, recognizable brand name, just think of the commercials. Chili’s Strengths Chili’s is the one of the largest full service restaurant chains with over 1,200 stores, second only to Applebee’s which has about 1,900 stores. Their competitor Ruby Tuesday has less than 900 stores with many of those franchises. Chili’s is part of Brinker Intl. , which is world’s second largest casual dining restaurant operator, the first being Darden restaurants. This allows them to offer affordable prices, because they can negotiate product rates for all of their stores, unlike a smaller company. They have also expanded their company to include Chili’s Too, Small Town Chili’s, and offer catering services. They update their menu one to two times a year, unlike Ruby Tuesday’s which updates their menu every three to four months. Chili’s has a popular menu that keeps people coming back, so they tweak it a bit to keep up with trends, but keep their core items. At this time they serve the same menu in every store, which allows for consistency throughout the company. They have a very broad market with a recognizable brand name and they focus on customer satisfaction. The restaurant business can be very competitive, but they have unusually high management retention and that may be in part to extremely competitive starting salaries and excellent benefit packages. Their competitor, Ruby Tuesday, has franchised many of its stores, creating varied salaries, salary caps, and benefits, when going from a franchise to a corporate store, which can make it difficult to retain managers. When Chili’s is looking for hourly employees, it offers several opportunities to them. They can apply and interview online, receive benefits and have the opportunity to grow with the company. Their hourly employee turnover rate is also lower than the industry average. Chili’s Weaknesses Even though the Chili’s brand is recognizable, it doesn’t appeal to the upper class. The casual dining concept, no matter how different, is still the same. They receive much of their food frozen, unlike Ruby Tuesday which receives all of their meat and produce fresh, making some items not the best of quality. During the busy times, servers are pressured to decrease their table turn time, the time from when a guest sits at the table until they leave and the table is ready for another guest, which can make it difficult to build a rapport with their guests, but at the same time they want their PPA (per person average) to be higher. Many of their restaurants are focused around the bar, which segregates some consumers that do not want to be in that environment. It also makes their seating area than some of their competitors. Chili’s Opportunities There are several things Chili’s can do to remain competitive in the casual dining industry. They can continue to expand internationally, beyond the 20 countries they are already in. Their competitors have yet to exceed that with Ruby Tuesday’s being in about twelve countries and Applebee’s is in almost twenty. They have a very well known brand which will allow them to continue expansion at a rapid rate with the backing of their parent company, Brinker Intl. They are launching a program to try international cuisines at some of their foreign locations. If consumers react positively this could be a great growth opportunity, if it is not taken to, it could be a threat to their international stores if they continue it. They can enlarge their restaurants or configure different models, based on the demographics of the area, to include more seating for guests and not just the bar area. They can continue to expand their brand recognition apparel and glassware. Chili’s Threats The largest threat to the Chili’s brand is the competition of casual dining restaurants, which are easy to duplicate. Applebee’s and Ruby Tuesday’s both had higher 1-year sales growths, with 10% and 17. %, respectively, compared to Chili’s at 6. 1%. Chili’s saturated some U. S. markets and has no where else to expand in those areas. They need to keep up with current trends and eating habits, because they change often, to stay current with the market. Summary Chili’s has managed to saturate the US and foreign markets better than its competitors. Their sales are higher and they retain their employees longer. They need to look at a few things like following eating trends and standing out from the competition a bit more, but they are a highly competitive company that keeps people coming back.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Coliseum essays

Coliseum essays The Coliseum was first called the Flavian Ampitheatre, after the men who built it. The builders were emperors Vespasian and Titus. The building of the Coliseum began around 70 A.D. The ampitheartre probably got the name Coliseum because a colossal statue of Nero which stood near it. The Coliseum was finally finished in 80 A.D. It seated over 50,000 people. The opening of the Coliseum was marked by 100 days of games, in which thousands of animals and gladiators were killed. Sometimes, the floors were taken out and were flooded in order to stage naval battles, even though these battles were mostly held in large basins. There were eighty entrances to the Coliseum, and the emperor had his own special one which lead to his box seat. From his seat, he was able to decide the fate of the gladiators who fought in the arena. The floor of the arena was wooden and covered with sand. Beneath the wooden boards and sand was a maze of passageways, and spaces to hold animals while they werent being used. There was an elevator used to carry the animals from the basement to the arena floor. The passageways underneath the floors can still be seen today. They had a special way of seating all 50,000 people in about 15 minutes. What they did was that each person picked a ticket before the game. Each ticket corresponded with one of the eighty entrances, which were all marked. Each ticket also had a row and seat number on it. There were upper class seats, which were made of marble, which was where the senators and rich people sat. There was also a lower class seats, which were made up of wooden benches. This seating arrangement is still used today from bullfights in Spain to baseball games in America. ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Analysing Literary Style The House On Mango Street English Literature Essay Essays

Analysing Literary Style The House On Mango Street English Literature Essay Essays Analysing Literary Style The House On Mango Street English Literature Essay Essay Analysing Literary Style The House On Mango Street English Literature Essay Essay but it helps the reader learn from the character ( s ) . It takes a batch of bravery to let go of the familiar and apparently procure, to encompass the new. But there is no existent security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventuresome and exciting, for in motion there is life, and in alteration there is power ( Alan Cohen ) . This quotation mark relates to this in a manner that it is stating that people should larn to accommodate to alter. Cisneros was demoing this throughout the whole book in Esperanza s life because she showed how Esperanza went through this but in different ways. This quotation mark besides symbolizes this because of how Esperanza changed friends because she taught that Sally understood her more than her two friends she had earlier. This is because she was acquiring used to the thought she truly had friends, but she seemingly got tired of them in her ain small manner. Thi s friendly relationship did non last long because she taught she had the perfect friend, but it turned out to be a bad relation between the two. One ground for this was because they were likewise, but Esperanza still was non certain who she was. Cisneros besides showed civilization in this novel. She did this to place the sort of people that lived on Mango Street since it was a portion where there were racial segregations. She largely focused on the Mexican portion of Esperanza. She showed civilization through the names of the characters. Through the names, Cisneros shows what Esperanza believes in, which is a good manner to convey out her civilization to specify herself. The Eskimos got 30 names for snow, I say ( Cisneros, 35 ) , which identifies that the more names a individual has or is giving, the more of import he/she is to that individual, which is the household. The names were truly of import to depict Esperanza s character because at the get downing she talked about the significances of her name, and she said that she was traveling to alter her name. Name callings represented who the individual was and because of this, Esperanza wanted to alter her name. Cisneros used this to clear up how Esperanza wanted to specif y herself as. She showed that Esperanza was still calculating out who she was traveling to be in the terminal. Another manner Esperanza was able to stand out was with the places. She loved places and to her they represented womenhood because it made her think of sex and her hunt for independency. The writer showed how Esperanza wanted to be free since they moved to their new place. Independence was what kept her in Mango Street because she wanted to larn from her experiences she had in Mango Street and turn them to her advantage until she is able to eventually travel her ain manner. For illustration, as she was turning up in Mango Street, Cisneros showed that she began believing different about many things. Esperanza non merely grew mentally but physically excessively. This led to her believing about male childs and many other things. Cisneros used this to place how all her experiences led her to happen herself. It made a way for Esperanza to follow on her manner to independence. Ci sneros besides showed how people change as they grow up. For illustration, when Esperanza started to speak to Sally, she wanted to be her friend because Sally understood her better than her two friends. This was besides because Sally had sexual experience that Esperanza hardly started to happen out approximately. Cisneros described every procedure a adolescent takes when turning up so the reader can understand how difficult it is to happen one s true ego. This was able to demo that every teenage miss has adversities when turning up specially in a vicinity like in Mango Street. At the terminal of the novel Cisneros showed how Esperanza was get downing to happen herself. I like to state narratives. I tell them inside my caput. I tell them after the postman says, Here s your mail. Here s your mail he said. I like to state narratives. I am traveling to state you a narrative about a miss who did nt desire to belong ( Cisneros, 109 ) . This is where she found who she truly was and what was her intent in life. This quotation mark explains how towards the terminal to the book Esperanza eventually began to calculate out herself. Cisneros did this in a manner that was sort of a verse form towards the terminal to stress it because it was the most of import portion of the book. It was a immense displacement because of how much Esperanza matured throughout the whole novel. By Esperanza being able to eventually place herself as a narrative Teller, Cisneros was able to stop the narrative by stating, Where did she travel with all those books and paper? Why did she proc ess so far off? They will non cognize I have gone off to come back. For the 1s who can non out ( Cisneros, 110 ) , which describes how Cisneros wanted the reader to cognize that it was clip for Esperanza to go forth Mango Street and be who she was meant to be. In the quotation mark it besides shows how Esperanza still used fragments in her sentences. Cisneros did this to demo that she still had some maturing to make before go forthing. This is why she stayed after so she can complete her school because she was non ready to go forth Mango, but when she felt strong and ready to go forth ; she was traveling to make it. Because of this, Esperanza was able to demo her true strength by remaining in Mango Street until she was to the full grown in Mango Street. Cisneros besides showed how her go forthing Mango Street was traveling to alter her whole vicinity specially does who doubted her because she was traveling to be a author to show what she neer did in her whole life. We do non turn perfectly, chronologically. We grow sometimes in one dimension, and non in another ; unevenly. We grow partly. We are comparative. We are mature in one kingdom, childish in another. The past, present, and future mingle and draw us rearward, frontward, or repair us in the present. We are made up of beds, cells, configurations ( Anais Nin ) . This quotation mark stated by Nin establishes how Esperanza grew throughout the whole book. It shows how her growing was small by small as she was sing different material. Cisneros was able to demo this through her authorship manner and imagination. She was able to set up a connexion between her and the character in a manner that she made the character happen her true ego by composing. Cisneros was reasonably close to Esperanza make to the fact that they both write to show themselves in a manner that entertain people. Cisneros alone composing led to make and astonishing character to demo how a adolescent miss larn how to place her true ego and make her maximal possible through storytelling and composing. Cisneros was able to portray different subjects to learn the reader how one can larn to accommodate to whatever alteration they are traveling through. Her composing gave the narrative the perfect significance for us the readers to to the full understand her astonishing work.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Entrepreneurship Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Entrepreneurship - Assignment Example Individual or group communication among the customers increases sharing of experiences and further requirements. Personal communication networks of ‘The Gathering Goddess’ are mainly the medium or channels that the management uses to interact with the customers. In the current study, critical evaluation of personal communication network (PCN) is made on the basis of small vintage apparel boutique based in London (Thegatheringgoddess.com, 2015). ‘The Gathering Goddess’ is developing new online stores to reach to more customers in the global market. Therefore, the organization must modify the personal networking policies as per the new platforms. ‘The Gathering Goddess’ is a small vintage apparel boutique based in the London area. The organization is producing female products for the Europe and USA clients. Initially, they started with sole physical store in the North Kensington area of London during the year 2002 (Thegatheringgoddess.com, 2015). The organization is facing huge challenge both nationally and internationally. ‘The Gathering Goddess’ is increasing their online presence for meeting challenges from competitors and increase market share and profitability. New partnership developed with the E-commerce firms like Fab.com and eBay helped the firms to meet global customers. Therefore, ‘The Gathering Goddess’ is modifying their Personal Communication Networks (Thegatheringgoddess.com, 2015). Initially, ‘The Gathering Goddess’ was using the personal communication networks to make direct influence on the customers. The firm was able to share information of the products and the services they were offering to the clients. They were using different types of communication channels and tools for communicating with the customers or other organizational stakeholders. Since 2002, the firm has used the several techniques to maintain communication networks among the customers (Thegatheringgoddess.com, 2015). The

Friday, November 1, 2019

Thomas Hobbes and Battle of Algiers Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Thomas Hobbes and Battle of Algiers - Thesis Example They formed, the members of the FNL that was aimed at fighting for Algiers freedom and self-determination. The members of the FNL are believed, from a Hobbesian view to be fighting for what they already own. The Battle of Algiers simply expresses the feelings, reactions and resolves of the Algiers to disallow the French rule in Algiers. It is out rightly indisputable that Hobbes is mistaken about what freedom and self-determination are. A country cannot be self-determining and freed if it is under an external rule. This paper will maintain that Hobbes view of the FLN is out rightly mistaken about what constitutes true freedom and self-determination. Hobbes makes the claim that the state of nature is a despondent state of war in which significant human ends are dependably achievable. He maintains that everyone being sensible can understand that a war involving all against all is hostile to the fulfillment of her/his concern. For the Algiers to obtain their self-determination and freedom, they had to fight the French rulers. Having been ruled by the French since 1830s, Algeria could not accept to keep being ruled by them. Hence, they used all means possible to attain their independence, including using children and women to actualize their strategies (Pontecorvo 1967-Movie). Hobbes is mistaken, for without a violent engagement with an invader, power cannot be obtained. All nations in history had to fight for their independence, as opposed to what Hobbes suggests. Hobbes considers freedom to be the situation where people mutually pledge to each other to conform to a common authority (Hobbes Pt. 1). By the French and Algiers conforming to a common power, it would mean the French rule and Algiers rule approving the group to rule Algeria. It would be unacceptable for a French rule taking charge of Algeria. As well it would not be acceptable to the French to hand over its long rule to the Algiers. Hence, Hobbes beliefs could not be applicable and cannot be applied to